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Student JB:

Vitamins and Minerals

Iodine – is a mineral that is essential to the body because it helps in the production of the thyroid hormones, which controls the metabolism of the body, helps in the proper development of the bone and brain during pregnancy. The amount of iodine needed daily varies depending on age. Iodine is present in fish, dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and iodized salt. Iodine deficiency can lead to goiter. For pregnant women, lack of iodine can cause harm to the fetus by stunted growth, intellectual disability, and delayed sexual development. But too much iodine intake can be harmful, causing the thyroid gland to swell or may cause cancer. A high dose of iodine can cause burning of the mouth, throat, and stomach, stomach pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weak pulse and may lead to coma.

Vitamin D – a fat-soluble vitamin that is available in some foods, supplements, and sun exposure. Vitamin D can enhance calcium absorption in the gut that is used for bone growth and remodeling by osteoclast and osteoblast and to prevent hypocalcemic tetany. It can also reduce inflammation, modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function. Insufficient vitamin D may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, which is the weakening of bones; they can also have symptoms of bone pain and muscle weakness. Rickets results in soft bone tissue and skeletal deformities because the bone tissue was not correctly mineralized. Excess intake of Vitamin D may cause high calcium levels in the blood that can cause vascular and tissue calcification that can damage the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys. Excessive intake can also cause symptoms of anorexia, weight loss, polyuria, and heart arrhythmias.

Vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin – is a water-soluble vitamin that is present in meat, poultry, seafood, fortified cereals, egg, and dairy products. It helps in the formation of RBC, produce energy, DNA formation, and nerve maintenance. An insufficient amount of vitamin B12 in the body may lead to nerve damage, anemia, and fatigue. No dose limit was established by taking Vitamin B12, but some studies show that excess intake may cause acne outbreaks and rosacea. It can also harm a patient with diabetes or kidney problems because the kidney will decline rapidly. And per the study, it also can cause heart attack, stroke, and even death. For pregnant women taking in excess, it may increase the risk for the fetus to have autism spectrum disorder.

Student AJ:

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin and is stored in the liver and body fat. There is no known toxic level associated with Vitamin K. However, it can inhibit the absorption of anticoagulant medication like Warfarin. Vitamin K injection is given to newborns because they have little Vitamin K and breast milk does not provide an adequate amount for the newborn. The main job for this vitamin is to clot the blood and assist with bone metabolism. Deficiency could result in hemorrhage and or fractures. The RDA for men is 120 mcg and 90 mcg for women (Smith, 2018, p.301). The best way to absorb and vitamin is through our diet, Vitamin K can be found in plants, oils, green leafy vegetables, and liver.


​Biotin is water soluble vitamin and is excreted from the body every couple of day’s. Biotin is more likely to cause deficiency issues because it is water soluble and there are no known toxicity levels. Deficiency is biotin can result in skin inflammation, lack of appetite or vomiting (Smith, 2018, p. 315). Biotin can also cause weakness and depression. Biotin helps in chemical reactions and assists in the synthesis of glycogen and fat. Food sources of biotin are foods rich in protein such as beef liver and eggs. Recommended daily value is 300 mcg.

Mineral -Sodium

​Sodium is a major mineral that is mostly absorbed by the digestive tract and is an important electrolyte. Sodium is incredibly important, a deficiency affects the nervous system as well as muscle relaxation and contraction. We tend to intake too much sodium, which raises blood pressure causes edema and an increase in weight. We need a max of 2.3 grams (1 tsp) of sodium to in our body to maintain balance (Smith, 2018, p. 363)

Student 1 HA:

Enzymes are kinetically important for many of the complex reactions necessary for plant and animal life to exist. However, only a tiny amount of any particular enzyme is

required for these complex reactions to occur. Explain.

I assume that we have learned about enzymes in our many biology and chemistry classes, but if I have to refresh memory on enzymes, they are defined as “biological catalysts, also known as bio-catalysts, that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms such as plants or animals” (Robinson, 2015). They are used in many significant roles such as “the production of sweetening agents and the modification of antibiotics, washing powders and various cleaning products, and they play a key role in analytical devices and assays that have clinical, forensic and environmental applications” (Robinson, 2015). Enzymes are substances or usually protein can be found in the cell which functions to “speed up the rate of chemical reactions because they allow chemical reactions to occur fast enough to support life and lower the energy of activation by forming an enzyme-substrate complex allowing products of the enzyme reaction to be formed and released” (Kaiser, 2020). In addition, only a tiny amount concentration of enzymes is required for reactions within cells since “they are not altered during their reactions and are highly specific for their substrate; generally, there is one specific enzyme for each specific chemical reaction” (Kaiser, 2020). In order to make reaction, “a small crevice is typically present on the surface of the enzyme that functions as an active site to which one or two specific substrates are able to bind” (Kaiser, 2020). We also have to keep in mind that how enzymes work in the cell’s environment because enzyme activities can be altered by four factors: “temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration and enzymes work the best within specific temperature, optimal pH range, enzymes concentration and substrate concentration” (Enzymes n.d.).

Student 2 MZ:

Question:​ ​The combustion of carbohydrates and the combustion of fats are both exothermic processes, yet the combustion of carbohydrates is a faster process. How can this be

Combustion is a type of chemical reaction that appears amongst a fuel and an oxidizing compound that creates energy. When the agents speed up, temperature is increased forming heat or a light reaction. Strong bonds are produced to make carbon dioxide, water and is the process of energy being absorbed in the reaction. An

exothermic is when a reaction results in the development of thermal energy or kinetic energy known as heat. Thus, exothermic is the activity that consumes less energy than the reactants and the surroundings have more energy (Anne, n.d.). However, defining combustion and exothermic will help understand the differences between the rates of exothermic process carbohydrates and fats of why one of the elements is faster.

Carbohydrates and fats are examples of a biological fuel. We know that the combustions of carbohydrates give off carbon dioxide and oxygen. However, low oxygen is presented in fats, meaning that fat requires more oxygen to burn, by producing more energy and going through a longer metabolic cycle than a complete combustion. The activation energy for combustion of fats is higher and fats are required to go over the method of beta-oxidation for metabolism, which makes the process slower. For carbohydrates, already contain oxygen in their chemical element, leading to a shorter and faster time for the process combustion to complete. In terms, the enthalpy of combustion rate of the chemical agents falls independent of the enthalpy change for a reaction to occur. The combustion of carbohydrates contains a lower activation of energy, leading it to be a more rapid process than the combustion of fats (Zumdahl, Zumdahl & DeCoste, 2017).