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Running head: RISK FACTORS AND GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION 1

RISK FACTORS AND GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION 3

Risk Factors and Gestational Hypertension

Name

Academic Institution

Purpose: To ensure pregnant women and their doctors take preventive measures against the onset of gestational hypertension and its adverse outcomes.

Audience: Pregnant women, obstetricians, gynecologists, nurses, midwives, class, professor.

Argument: Comprehensive knowledge about gestational hypertension risk factors is crucial in implementing timely interventions to prevent hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

Risk Factors and Gestational Hypertension

Introduction

Gestational hypertension refers to a condition that causes high blood pressure in pregnant women. Also known as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), this condition tends to lead to preeclampsia/toxemia, which often causes cardiovascular disease. According to Shen et al. (2017), gestational hypertension is a major health problem for many women across the globe. Approximately 5 percent of all pregnancies are often complicated by the condition, which results in neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality (Shen et al., 2017). Furthermore, 14 percent of all maternal deaths are attributed to conditions related to gestational hypertension. Pertinent research reveals common risk factors among all the women diagnosed with gestational hypertension. However, the failure to recognize these risk factors early enough results in many women going undiagnosed and suffering the adverse consequences of the condition (Tebeu et al., 2011). It is essential for both OB-GYNs and their patients to have comprehensive knowledge about gestational hypertension risk factors so that they can utilize them as a screening mechanism for the condition and implement timely interventions to prevent hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

Outline

I. Introduction: Comprehensive knowledge about gestational hypertension risk factors is crucial in implementing timely interventions to prevent hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

II. Having in-depth knowledge of the risk factors associated with gestational hypertension is essential in fighting the problem because the condition has no definite cause. OB-GYNs should sensitize and educate their patients on these risk factors.

III. There are shared risk factors between gestational hypertension and preeclampsia (Shen et al., 2017). There is a higher chance of a woman experiencing adverse outcomes with gestational hypertension compared to preeclampsia.

IV. The lifestyle and diet of a pregnant woman have a significant bearing in the identification of risk factors associated with gestational hypertension (Oken et al., 2007).

V. In conclusion, the failure to recognize risk factors early enough results in many women going undiagnosed and suffering the adverse consequences of the condition.

Body Paragraphs

Since gestational hypertension has no definite cause, having in-depth knowledge of its risk factors is essential in fighting the problem. According to Kahsay, Gashe, and Ayele (2018), there are numerous studies across the world, which have identified diverse risk factors. Examples of these risk factors are “socio-demographic variables such, personal and lifestyle factors, obstetric related factors, familial factors, and medical-related variables” (Levenson, Skerrett, & Gaziano, 2002). Therefore, OB-GYNs should sensitize and educate their patients on these issues. They should also investigate if their patients fall into any of the classes of the risk factors and advise them accordingly.

It is essential to understand the shared risk factors between gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. According to Shen et al. (2017), although these two conditions have similar risk factors, pertinent research reveals that the differences in the effect sizes of outcomes and risk factors imply that both conditions might have diverse mechanisms and pathophysiology. From the research, the incidence rate of gestational hypertension is higher than preeclampsia, that is, 3.7 percent compared to 2.9 percent (Shen et al., 2017). There was also a difference in the effect sizes of these two conditions. However, there was a similarity in risk factors for the early onset of the conditions compared to late-onset. Regarding outcomes, there is a higher chance of a woman experiencing adverse outcomes with gestational hypertension compared to preeclampsia. This is characterized by things like preterm birth, placental abruption, and cesarean section.

Finally, there is the issue of lifestyle and dietary factors. The lifestyle and diet of a pregnant woman have a significant bearing in the identification of risk factors associated with gestational hypertension. For starters, pregnant women residing in rural areas have a higher chance of developing gestational hypertension compared to their urban counterparts (Oken et al., 2007). The reason behind this may be due to the limited access to prenatal care in the rural areas, in addition to the lack of awareness about the importance of prenatal care and identifying risk factors for pregnancy-related diseases. Other reasons may be cultural influences and family beliefs that prevent women from visiting hospitals for prenatal care. Regarding dietary influences, pregnant women who consume unhealthy foods have a higher chance of getting gestational hypertension compared to those who eat healthy foods. For instance, the lack of consumption of fruits has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of gestational hypertension (Oken et al., 2007). This is because fruits contain vital nutrients, minerals, and vitamins, which create antioxidants that prevent the onset of gestational hypertension.

In conclusion, it is essential for both OB-GYNs and their patients to have comprehensive knowledge about gestational hypertension risk factors so that they can utilize them as a screening mechanism for the condition and implement timely interventions to prevent hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. The failure to recognize these risk factors early enough results in many women going undiagnosed and suffering the adverse consequences of the condition.

References

Kahsay, H. B., Gashe, F. E., & Ayele, W. M. (2018). Risk factors for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among mothers in Tigray region, Ethiopia: matched case-control studyBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth18(1), 482.

Levenson, J. W., Skerrett, P. J., & Gaziano, J. M. (2002). Reducing the global burden of cardiovascular disease: The role of risk factors. Preventive Cardiology5(4), 188-199.

Oken, E., Ning, Y. I., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Olsen, S. F., & Gillman, M. W. (2007). Diet during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. Annals of Epidemiology17(9), 663-668.

Shen, M., Smith, G. N., Rodger, M., White, R. R., Walker, M. C., & Wen, S. W. (2017). Comparison of risk factors and outcomes of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. PloS one12(4), e0175914.

Tebeu, P. M., Foumane, P., Mbu, R., Fosso, G., Biyaga, P. T., & Fomulu, J. N. (2011). Risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: A report from the Maroua Regional Hospital, Cameroon. Journal of Reproduction & Infertility12(3), 227.