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After reviewing Safety Data Sheets (SDS) and conducting an initial inspection of the areas at Acme Automotive Parts (AAP), you identify the following health hazards that you want to further evaluate: 

  • manganese fume (hand welding); 
  • copper fume (hand welding); 
  • lead fume (hand welding); 
  • 1,2,4 trimethylbenzene (paint booth); 
  • toluene (paint booth); and 
  • xylene (paint booth). 

Choose one of the compounds from the hand-welding operation and one of the compounds from the paint booth operation. Search the Internet, and find the following data concerning the two compounds you chose; LC50, IDLH, vapor pressure, vapor density, target organs, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity. (Hint: many of the variables can be found on SDS that can be accessed on the Internet). 

Write one paragraph on each of the compounds explaining what the data tell you about the most likely exposure route and risk associated with each compound. 

Your assignment must be a minimum of two pages in length, not including title or reference pages. Your assignment must use at least two references. One must be gathered from the CSU Online Library; the other may be your textbook. All references and in-text citations must be formatted according to APA standards.

MOS 6301, Advanced Industrial Hygiene 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

3. Examine the foundational scientific principles for industrial hygiene practices. 3.1 Summarize some of the common terms used in toxicology. 3.2 Determine the risk to employees based on a review of existing toxicological data.

Course/Unit Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity

3.1

Unit Lesson Chapter 4, pp. 65–93 Article: “The Scientific Basis of Uncertainty Factors Used in Setting

Occupational Exposure Limits,” pp. S55–S68 Unit II Scholarly Activity

3.2

Unit Lesson Chapter 4, pp. 65–93 Article: “The Scientific Basis of Uncertainty Factors Used in Setting

Occupational Exposure Limits,” pp. S55–S68 Unit II Scholarly Activity

Reading Assignment Chapter 4: Basic Concepts in Industrial Toxicology, pp. 65–93 In order to access the following resource, click the link below. Dankovic, D. A., Naumann, B. D., Maier, A., Dourson, M. L., & Levy, L. S. (2015). The scientific basis of

uncertainty factors used in setting occupational exposure limits. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 12(Suppl. 1), S55–S68. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=a9h&AN=111071548&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Unit Lesson Industrial hygienists require at least a basic knowledge and understanding of a number of scientific disciplines. Toxicology is one of the more important disciplines for the industrial hygienist. A primary mission of industrial hygiene is to prevent injuries and illnesses by reducing the risks associated with hazards. Toxicology data are valuable tools for accomplishing that mission. Many students have never really given the field of toxicology that much thought, or if you took a class in your studies, you may have come to the conclusion that toxicology is either too difficult or boring. However, if shown the following picture, most would automatically say “Poison,” so there is at least some recognition of toxicology.

UNIT II STUDY GUIDE

How an Understanding of Toxicology Helps in the Industrial Hygiene Practicehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=111071548&site=ehost-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=111071548&site=ehost-live&scope=site

MOS 6301, Advanced Industrial Hygiene 2

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As your textbook has pointed out, the most common definition of toxicology is the study of poisons (Fuller, 2015). This should automatically bring up several questions for the aspiring industrial hygienist. How can toxicological data be used to help you with your job? Where can you find the data that can help you? How can you translate this stuff into something you can understand? This lesson will not make you an expert on toxicology. You will have to take the advanced toxicology class for your master’s degree, and that class will go in depth much more than this one unit. However, this lesson is designed to help you understand where you can obtain data to assist you with industrial hygiene work and some basic understanding of what the data mean. A basic saying in toxicology is “the dose makes the poison.” Loosely, this means that at a low enough exposure, chemicals will not cause harm, but as the exposure increases, the risk of harm also increases. You can reach an exposure level where harm actually occurs. In controlling risk, it would be nice if we could identify that point and make sure no workers were ever exposed to a chemical at that level. One objective of toxicology studies is to identify the dose below which harm does not occur. A common way that data is displayed is the dose-response curve. An example of a dose-response curve can be seen on page 79 of the textbook (Fuller, 2015). Dose-Response The textbook calls the point at which some response occurs (for Figure 4-2 the response is percent of liver hypertrophy) the threshold dose (Fuller, 2015). Some more commonly used terms in toxicology are lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) and no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). The LOAEL represents the lowest exposure at which some response was recorded (typically from animal studies). The NOAEL represents the highest dose at which no response was seen. This appears to make it fairly simple to just say, let’s keep the workers’ exposures less than the NOAEL and then no one will get sick! However, it is not quite that simple. First, most NOAELs are generated based on animal studies. Results from animal studies do not translate directly to humans for various reasons including differences in body sizes (weight) and differences in body functions (hormones, etc.). Second, there can be wide variations in how individual workers react to an exposure to a chemical. Differences in gender, weight, age, and even a person’s genetic sequences can alter the concentration at which they would react and the level of the reaction (Wheeler, Park, Bailer, & Whitaker, 2015). For this reason, organizations that establish occupational exposure limits (OELs) typically apply a safety factor. The level of the safety factor will depend on how serious the health effect may be.

Toxicology is the study of poisons. (Brutlag, n.d.)

MOS 6301, Advanced Industrial Hygiene 3

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The dose-response curve can inform us of the level of toxicity compared to other compounds and the size of the safety factor that must be applied. When you look at dose-response curves, you will see many different slopes to the curves. Some are quite steep, while others are rather shallow. If you think about this, it should indicate to you that the compounds with a relatively steep slope only take a small increase in dose to greatly increase the response, while compounds with a shallow curve require a much greater increase in dose to cause a significant increase in the response. Other terms that can be important for an industrial hygienist trying to assess the risk to a health hazard include the LD50 and LC50. These terms represent the dose at which 50 percent of an exposed population die. LD50 is used when the exposure occurs by ingestion or dermal exposure. LC50 is used when the exposure is by inhalation. Both of the terms represent acute exposures, meaning they are short-term exposures with acute effects. In other words, they are not used for chronic exposures resulting in chronic diseases like cancer. Other results that are not reported as often in safety data sheets (SDS) are TCLo, TC50, TDLo, and TD50. These terms are quite similar to the LD50 and LC50 except they identify the dose or concentration where 50 percent of the subjects show some toxic response or the lowest dose or concentration where any subject shows the toxic response. Target Organs Another piece of information that can be important to the industrial hygienist is the target organ. Many compounds will exert a toxic effect to one or more specific organs of the body. Knowing which organ a compound could affect can help in determining the best protective measures to use. For example, if a compound is known to primarily be a lung toxin, reducing personal exposures by inhalation would be somewhat important. Some compounds are immunotoxins. These compounds can cause unique problems for the industrial hygienist. Some compounds, after repeated exposures, can cause a sensitization reaction (allergic response) in a small percentage of exposed workers. These workers will exhibit future responses to much lower concentrations of the chemical. The response can be either a respiratory reaction or a dermal reaction. Some of the common chemicals used in industrial settings that can be immunotoxins are formaldehyde, some of the isocyanates, some metal fumes, and bisphenol A (BPA). Some plants have had to move workers to other areas of a facility because of these reactions. Chronic Health Effects Another important consideration is whether a compound can cause chronic health effects. Most workers are highly concerned about a compound’s ability to produce cancer. Compounds that can cause cancer are called carcinogens. Some cancers start as changes in the DNA called mutations. Chemicals that can cause these mutations are called mutagens. Not all mutations result in cancer. All humans suffer some mutations during their lifetime. For the most part, the mutations are benign and are eliminated as the body turns over cells in a process called apoptosis. However, sometimes the mutations result in an uncontrolled growth of cells resulting in cancer. Also, not all cancers start with a mutation. Asbestos is a good example of a carcinogen that is not a mutagen. There are several organizations that rate the carcinogenicity of compounds the industrial hygienist may see. The two that most industrial hygienists refer to the most are the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). You can generally find the carcinogenic ratings of compounds in Section 11 of the SDS. Finally, the industrial hygienist should also consider a chemical’s ability to affect reproductivity (reproductive toxins) or the development of a fetus (teratogens). In some settings, this can be rather important to protect workers. For example, most of the anti-neoplastic drugs used in chemotherapy are also reproductive toxins and teratogens. There are numerous published studies showing spontaneous abortions in females working in oncology clinics due to exposures to these drugs. An industrial hygienist working in an oncology clinic would need to set up a rigorous program to reduce the risk associated with handling these drugs.

MOS 6301, Advanced Industrial Hygiene 4

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References Brutlag, C. (n.d.). Poison sign (ID 2863549) [Photograph]. Retrieved from

https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-images-poison-sign-image2863549 Fuller, T. P. (2015). Essentials of industrial hygiene. Itasca, IL: National Safety Council. Wheeler, M. W., Park, R. M., Bailer, A. J., & Whittaker, C. (2015). Historical context and recent advances in

exposure-response estimation for deriving occupational exposure limits. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 12(Suppl. 1), S7–S17. https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2015.1076934

Suggested Reading In order to access the following resources, click the links below. The CSU Online Library contains many articles that relate to the Unit II readings. The following are just a few of the related articles that can be found in the Academic Search Complete database. There are several methods used to establish occupational exposure limits (OELs). The following article looks at several of the organizations, including a discussion of how toxicological data are used in the process. Deveau, M., Chen, C.-P., Johanson, G., Krewski, D., Maier, A., Niven, K. J., Niemeier, R. W. (2015). The

global landscape of occupational exposure limits—Implementation of harmonization principles to guide limit selection. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 12(Suppl. 1), S127–S144. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=a9h&AN=111071550&site=eds-live&scope=site

One concept you were introduced to in this lessson is the use of biomarkers for evaluating the risk associated with some health hazards. The following article discusses the use of some biomarkers to detect overexposures at an early stage. DeBord, D. G., Burgoon, L., Edwards, S. W., Haber, L. T., Kanitz, M. H., Kuempel, E., Yucesoy, B. (2015).

Systems biology and biomarkers of early effects for occupational exposure limit setting. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 12(Suppl. 1), S41–S54. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=a9h&AN=111071547&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Genetic research has made great advances in recent years, including the study of how specific genetic markers can be used to predict health risks. These studies complement the toxicological data that we studied in this lesson. The following article summarizes some considerations in using genetic markers. Schulte, P. A., Whittaker, C., & Curran, C. P. (2015). Considerations for using genetic and epigenetic

information in occupational health risk assessment and standard setting. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 12(Suppl. 1), S69–S81. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=a9h&AN=111071546&site=ehost-live&scope=site

The point of departure (POD) is a variable commonly used when setting OELs. The dose-response relationship that we learned about in this lesson is important to the POD. The following article describes how the dose-response relationship and POD are used in setting OELs. Wheeler, M. W., Park, R. M., Bailer, A. J., & Whittaker, C. (2015). Historical context and recent advances in

exposure-response estimation for deriving occupational exposure limits. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 12(Suppl. 1), S7–S17. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=a9h&AN=111071554&site=ehost-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=111071550&site=eds-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=111071550&site=eds-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=111071547&site=ehost-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=111071547&site=ehost-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=111071546&site=ehost-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=111071546&site=ehost-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=111071554&site=ehost-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=111071554&site=ehost-live&scope=site

MOS 6301, Advanced Industrial Hygiene 5

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Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) publishes the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Access the pocket guide at https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2005-149/pdfs/2005-149.pdf and search for several chemicals. Look at the columns of information for each chemical, and see if there are any terms you learned about in Chapter 5. How do you think you can use that information in controlling the risk to health hazards?https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2005-149/pdfs/2005-149.pdf