- Data Collection – Qualitative: In one to two paragraphs, justify one qualitative (experience-based) instrument that would be used in your proposed study to collect data on the effectiveness of your intervention in answering your research question(s). Provide support from the research, literature, and textbook to explain why this would be an effective method for collecting data.
- Data Collection – Quantitative: In one to two paragraphs, justify one quantitative (number-based) instrument that would be used in your proposed study to collect data on the effectiveness of your intervention in answering your research question(s). Provide support from the research, literature, and textbook to explain why this would be an effective method for collecting data.
- Instrument: Design one instrument, either quantitative or qualitative, that you could use to collect data to answer your research question(s) and to determine the effectiveness of your intervention. Remember to review the data collection technique sections in the text and in this week’s guidance to choose appropriate instruments to answer your research question.
- Data Collection Considerations – Credibility, Transferability, Dependability, and Confirmability: Using Guba’s Criteria of Validity of Qualitative Research, determine how you will establish the trustworthiness of your action research study.
- Data Collection Procedures: In conjunction with your intervention plan, formulate your procedures for collecting data in your proposed action research study. You may use the chart you created for your intervention plan to add in the data collection procedures or provide a narrative description of your procedures. Be sure to also address how your data collection will reflect trustworthiness and the ethical considerations related to anonymity and confidentiality.
NOTE: I HAVE ATTACHED MY INTERVENTION PLAN FOR GUIDANCE.
Running head: MODELING YOUNG STUDENT BEHAVIOR 1
MODELING YOUNG STUDENT BEHAVIOR 6
Implementing a practical approach for modeling young students behavior
How can elementary teachers model students’ behavior without conflicting with the parent?
Having a disciplined child is the desire for every parent, but the historical approach of physical means for modeling children’s behavior faces multiple criticisms. This is more so the case when teachers have the responsibility to support parents in model their children’s behaviors. American Psychological Association (2019) suggests that physical disciple is an ineffective and harmful approach to modeling children’s actions. The argument against is that despite parents (and to some extent elementary teachers) use spanking as an approach to model the behavior of young students, it does not, in any circumstance, teach them about responsibility, self-control, or conscience development (American Psychological Association, 2019). Elizabeth Gershoff, an expert on the effect of corporal-based punishment, explains that this approach of disciplining young children only results in getting attention and not modeling the behavior of the child. This means that the result of the physical disciplining method is contrary to what 80% of mothers and other people expert (American Psychological Association, 2019). Moreover, due to law and regulation changes about human rights, it is becoming more complex to use physical discipline to model children’s behaviors. This call for the elementary teacher to seek for other approaches to model children behavior in elementary classrooms, especially given the fact that parent is more sensitive to physical discipline from other person compared to when they do it on their own.
To address this issue, most elementary teachers have shifted to other non-physical means of modeling positive behavior for young students. Murphy (n.d) suggests visual learning strategies and one of the most appreciated means by the elementary teacher. However, parents may have a different perspective on these new approaches. Of course, most are likely to prefer new methods in the sense that they will support children safe in school. But a significant percentage also believes that corporal punishment in school is necessary because traditionally, it worked in modeling their behavior while in school-age or at least that what they believe.
Furthermore, suppose only the teachers are to implement visual learning strategies as an alternative to corporal punishment. In that case, students may use schools as an opportunity to misbehave if they acknowledge that they are only punished at home (McCormick, 2013). This may cause classroom management difficulties because it will become challenging to maintain control. Nevertheless, the visual learning approach has the best potential for shaping young student behavior. If parents can also adopt this approach, it would help avoid teacher-parent conflict in modeling young student behavior (Murphy, n.d). Yet, it is unclear how parents and teachers are likely to respond to the new approaches for modeling student behavior, such as visual learning strategies.
This study focuses on evaluating why corporal punishment is an ineffective/harmful approach, how teachers can use visual learning strategies as the best alternative and how parents and teachers are likely to respond to these new approaches.
The study requires two different research approaches. One focuses on comparing corporal punishment and visual learning strategies for modeling young student behavior. The other identifies how both parents and teachers are likely to perceive the new approach (visual learning strategy) compared to the traditional corporal punishment approach. The first step includes searching, collecting data, and comparing the context between the two focus areas. These may take about two days using both primary and secondary data sources. The second step includes surveying interviews and administering questionnaires. To overcome distance barriers and reduce the risk of being infected with COVID-19, the study may require online and other social media to reach out to potential participants (Dhawan, 2020). This may need about three days to set up the communication channel, reach out to the elementary teacher and parent, and collect data according to their responses. The third step includes using the data to develop/document a practical approach for modeling young student behaviors. This is based on parents’ reactions, teachers’ responses, and the comparison to the efficiency of both physical discipline and visual learning strategies. This requires about one day carrying out all these activities. The last step is the implementation, which involves communication and continuous flow up of the proposed approach to ensure it is sufficient for both teachers and parents for young students (Siddiqui & Qayyum, 2017). This is a continuous process that may require a few months to test and make necessary adjustments to the implemented approach.
The study identifies that using corporal punishment to model student behavior can be harmful and ineffective. On the other hand, some parents still believe that physical discipline is the best way to shape their children’s behavior. This means that the study may eventually propose form an approach that supports both corporal punishment and visual learning strategies. In such a case, it is essential to ensure that parents and teachers have informed consent about the potential degree of harm/ineffectiveness associate with this approach before implementation. Corporal punishment is an approach that has been used in schools for decades, and to the right extent, people believe that it is what has shaped their behavior as young students in schools. Visual learning strategy has mental benefits that help a student learn how to be responsible, develop life skills, and enhance emotional, health, safety, cognitive and social skills (Murphy, n.d). Based on this perspective, the study and final proposed approach for modeling young student behavior for the elementary teachers with support from parents should be free from harm. Besides informed consent and avoiding harm, the student will ensure anonymity and confidentiality by respecting autonomy, securing records, and encrypting the online communication channel (Hunter et al., 2018). The information documented in the study will also be so the reader cannot link the details to a particular person/participant.
American Psychological Association. (2019). Physical discipline is harmful and ineffective. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/monitor/2019/05/physical-discipline
Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: A panacea in the time of the COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(1), 5-22.
Hunter, R. F., Gough, A., O’Kane, N., McKeown, G., Fitzpatrick, A., Walker, T., … & Kee, F. (2018). Ethical issues in social media research for public health. American journal of public health, 108(3), 343-348.
McCormick, M. P., Cappella, E., O’Connor, E. E., & McClowry, S. G. (2013). Parent involvement, emotional support, and behavior problems: An ecological approach. The Elementary School Journal, 114(2), 277-300.
Murphy, S. J. (n.d) Modeling Positive Behaviors for Young Children through Visual Learning Strategies and Within Recognizable Contexts.
Siddiqui, S., & Qayyum, R. (2017). DEVELOPING CULTURALLY RELEVANT INTERVENTION PLAN FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAUMA:: AN APPLICATION OF COMMUNITY BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH APPROACH FOR MENTAL HEALTH. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal, 67(5), 868-74.