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Please check the 2 informative speech samples.  

The Three Cs of Down Syndrome

Adapted from a speech by Elizabeth Lopez, Collin County Community College

Speech Outline: The Three Cs of Down Syndrome

General purpose: To inform

Speech goal: In this speech, I am going to familiarize the audience with the three Cs of Down syndrome: its causes, its characteristics, and the contributions people with Down syndrome make.

Introduction

I. In our lifetime, we will encounter many people who, for a variety of reasons, are “different.”

II. Today I want to speak to you about one of those differences—Down syndrome.

III. Why do I want to talk about this topic? Because I have a daughter who has Down syndrome.

IV. In this speech, I will discuss with you the three Cs of Down syndrome. (Slide 1: Causes, Characteristics, and Contributions)

Body

I. To begin, let it be understood what causes Down syndrome.

1. Although Down syndrome is a genetic condition, it is not hereditary.

1. People with Down syndrome have 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46 (https://www.nads.org/w).

2. Thisextrachromosomeiscausedbyarandomerrorincelldivisionwithin chromosome 21 prior to conception. (Slide 2: Chromosome 21)

3. Although individuals do not inherit the mutant chromosome 21, so neither parent is to blame, once a couple has a child with Down syndrome, the likelihood of reoccurrence with the same two parents is increased. (Slide 3: Genetic but Not Inherited)

2. There are approximately 350,000 people living in the United States with Down syndrome.

1. Down syndrome occurs in one of every 800 live births, and an unknown number of fetuses with Down syndrome are aborted each year.

2. Women over the age of 35 are most likely to produce chromosome 21–altered eggs, but most children with Down syndrome are born to younger mothers because younger women have a greater percentage of babies.

Transition: Now that you know what causes Down syndrome, I want to describe the key physical and mental differences that people with this syndrome have.

II. People with Down syndrome differ from others both physically and mentally.

1. People with Down syndrome look different, and this syndrome also can create a number of physical health problems. (Slide 4: Characteristics: Physical and Health Differences)

1. The major physical differences are facial, such as a flat face, slanted eyes, and a large tongue in conjunction with a small mouth, but people with Down syndrome also experience low muscle tone.

2. The major health concerns include heart defects, hearing loss, vision loss, and a weaker immune system.

2. Second, people with Down syndrome are also mentally different, experiencing developmental delays, cognitive impairments, and emotional precociousness. (Slide 5: Characteristics)

1. The delayed developmental characteristics of Down syndrome are speech, cognitive, and motor skills.

2. The cognitive developmental characteristics of children with Down syndrome are varied among children with Down syndrome.

3. People with Down syndrome are emotionally precocious.

Transition: Now that you understand what Down syndrome is and how people with the syndrome differ from others, I would like to explain the special and unique ways that people with Down syndrome contribute to others.

III. People with Down syndrome positively affect their families and communities. (Slide 6: Contributions)

1. What are the positive contributions people with Down syndrome make in families?

1. Families with a child who has Down syndrome often include a tighter marriage and more compassionate siblings.

2. Families with a child who has Down syndrome also tend to experience a higher degree of acceptance in their communities.

2. People with Down syndrome contribute to their communities.

1. Children with Down syndrome who are mainstreamed in classrooms teach their peers to value differences.

2. Many adults with Down syndrome in the workplace are role models of dedication and perseverance.

Conclusion

I. To review, now you know that Down syndrome is caused by a preconception change in chromosome 21 that causes people with Down syndrome to be physically and mentally different, and you also know that many people with Down syndrome make positive contributions to society.

II. So, the next time you encounter someone with Down syndrome, I hope you’ll remember what you have learned so you can enjoy getting to know this person rather than being afraid.

Works Cited

Faragher, Rhonda. “Down Syndrome: It’s a Matter of Quality of Life.” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 49 (October 2005):761–765. Academic Search Premier. BSCOE Host Research Databases. Collin County Community College District. Accessed October 7, 2005. www.web27.epnet.com.

Helders, Paul. “Children with Down Syndrome.” 2005: 141. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOE Host Research Databases. Collin County Community College District. Accessed October 7, 2005. www.web27.epnet.com.

National Down Syndrome Society. “Information and Resources.” Accessed October 7, 2005. www.ndss.org.

National Association for Down Syndrome. Accessed October 7, 2005. www.nads.org. Rietveld, Christine. “Classroom Learning Experiences by New Children with Down Syndrome.” Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability 30 (September 2005): 127–138. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOE Host Research Databases. Collin County Community College District. Accessed October 7, 2005. www.web27.epnet.com.

EXAMPLE OF INFORMATIVE SPEECH OUTLINE Sarah Putnam Informative Outline Topic: The Titanic General Purpose: To Inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about one of the most famous tragedies in

history, the Titanic. Thesis: From the disaster to the movie, the sinking of the Titanic remains one of

the most famous tragedies in history. I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: An American writer named Morgan Robertson once

wrote a book called The Wreck of the Titan. The book was about an “unsinkable” ship called the Titan that set sail from England to New York with many rich and famous passengers on board. On its journey, the Titan hit an iceberg in the North Atlantic and sunk. Many lives were lost because there were not enough lifeboats. So, what is so strange about this? Well, The Wreck of the Titan was written 14 years before the Titanic sank.

B. Reason to Listen: The sinking of the Titanic was one of the largest non-war

related disasters in history, and it is important to be knowledgeable about the past.

C. Thesis Statement: From the disaster to the movie, the sinking of the Titanic

remains one of the most famous tragedies in history. D. Credibility Statement: 1. I have been fascinated by the history of the Titanic for as long as I can

remember.

2. I have read and studied my collection of books about the Titanic many times, and have done research on the Internet.

E. Preview of Main Points: 1. First, I will discuss the Titanic itself.

2. Second, I will discuss the sinking of the ship. 3. Finally, I will discuss the movie that was made about the Titanic. II. From the disaster to the movie, the sinking of the Titanic remains one of the most

famous tragedies in history.

A. The Titanic was thought to be the largest, safest, most luxurious ship ever built.

1. At the time of her launch, she was the biggest existing ship and the largest moveable object ever built.

a. According to Geoff Tibbals, in his 1997 book The Titanic: The

extraordinary story of the “unsinkable” ship, the Titanic was 882 feet long and weighed about 46,000 tons.

b. This was 100 feet longer and 15,000 tons heavier than the

world’s current largest ships.

c. Thresh stated in Titanic: The truth behind the disaster, published in 1992 that the Titanic accommodated around 2,345 passengers and 860 crew-members.

2. The beautiful accommodations of the Titanic were decorated and

furnished with only the finest items.

a. According to a quotation from Shipbuilders magazine that is included in Peter Thresh’s 1992 book Titanic, “Everything has been done in regard to the furniture and fittings to make the first class accommodation more than equal to that provided in the finest hotels on shore” (p. 18).

b. Fine parlor suites located on the ship consisted of a sitting room,

two bedrooms, two wardrobe rooms, a private bath, and a lavatory.

c. The first class dining room was the largest on any liner; it could

serve 500 passengers at one sitting.

d. Other first class accommodations included a squash court, swimming pool, library, barber’s shop, Turkish baths, and a photographer’s dark room.

3. The Titanic was widely believed to be the safest ship ever built.

a. Tibbals, as previously cited, described the Titanic as having an outer layer that shielded an inner layer – a ‘double bottom’ – that was created to keep water out of the ship if the outer layer was pierced.

b. The bottom of the ship was divided into 16 watertight

compartments equipped with automatic watertight doors.

c. The doors could be closed immediately if water were to enter into the compartments.

d. Because of these safety features, the Titanic was deemed

unsinkable.

Transition: Now that I’ve discussed the Titanic itself, I will now discuss the tragedy that occurred on its maiden voyage.

B. The Titanic hit disaster head-on when it ran into an iceberg four days after its

departure. 1. The beginning of the maiden voyage was mostly uneventful. a. Tibbals (1997) stated that the ship departed from Queenstown in

Ireland at 1:30 pm on April 10th, 1912, destined for New York.

b. The weather was perfect for sailing – there was blue sky, light winds, and a calm ocean.

d. According to Walter Lord in A Night to Remember from 1955, the

Atlantic Ocean was like polished plate glass on the night of April 14.

2. The journey took a horrible turn when the ship struck an iceberg and

began to sink.

a. In the book Titanic: An illustrated history from 1992, Lynch explains that the collision occurred at 11:40 pm on Sunday, April 14.

b. According to Robert Ballard’s 1988 book Exploring the Titanic,

the largest part of the iceberg was under water.

c. Some of the ship’s watertight compartments had been punctured and the first five compartments rapidly filled with water.

d. Tibbals (1997) wrote that distress rockets were fired and distress signals were sent out, but there were no ships close enough to arrive in time.

3. As the ship went down, some were rescued but the majority of

passengers had no place to go. a. Thresh (1992) stated that there were only 20 lifeboats on the ship.

b. This was only enough for about half of the 2,200 people that were on board.

c. The lifeboats were filled quickly with women and children

loaded first. 4. The ship eventually disappeared from sight.

a. Tibbals (1997) explains that at 2:20 am on Monday, the ship broke in half and slowly slipped under the water.

b. At 4:10 am, the Carpathia answered Titanic’s distress call and arrived to rescue those floating in the lifeboats.

c. Lynch (1992) reported that in the end, 1,522 lives were lost. Transition: Now that we have learned about the history of the Titanic, I will discuss the

movie that was made about it. C. A movie depicting the Titanic and a group of fictional characters was made. 1. The movie was written, produced, and directed by James Cameron. a. According to Marsh in James Cameron’s Titanic from 1997,

Cameron set out to write a film that would bring the event of the Titanic to life.

b. Cameron conducted six months of research to compile a highly

detailed time line so that the film would be realistic.

c. Cameron spent more time on the Titanic than the ships’ original passengers because he made 12 trips to the wreck site that lasted between ten and twelve hours each.

2. Making Titanic was extremely expensive and involved much hard work. a. According to a 1998 article from the Historical Journal of Films,

Radio, and Television, Kramer stated that the film had a 250 million dollar budget.

b. A full-sized replica of the ship was constructed in Baja

California, Mexico in a 17 million gallon oceanfront tank.

c. Cameron assembled an expedition to dive to the wreck on the ocean floor to film footage that was later used in the opening scenes of the movie.

d. Marsh (1997) further explained that the smallest details were

attended to, including imprinting the thousands of pieces china, crystal, and silver cutlery used in the dining room scenes with White Star’s emblem and pattern.

3. The movie was extremely successful.

a. Kramer (1998) reported that Titanic made approximately 600 million dollars in the United States, making it the #1 movie of all time.

b. It made approximately 1.8 billion dollars world-wide and is also

the #1 movie of all time world-wide.

c. Titanic was nominated for a record eight Golden Globe Awards only a few weeks after its release, and won four.

d. It was also nominated for a record fourteen Academy Awards,

and it won eleven. III. Conclusion A. Review of Main Points: 1. Today I first discussed the Titanic itself. 2. Second, I discussed the sinking of the ship. 3. Finally, I discussed the movie that was made about the Titanic.

B. Restate Thesis: From the disaster to the movie, the sinking of the Titanic remains one of the most famous tragedies in history.

C. Closure: In conclusion, remember The Wreck of the Titan, the

story written fourteen years before the Titanic sank. It now seems as if it was an eerie prophecy, or a case of life

imitating art. Whatever the case, the loss of lives on the Titanic was tremendous, and it is something that should never be forgotten.

References Ballard, R. (1988). Exploring the Titanic. Toronto, Ontario: Madison Press Books.

Kramer, P. (1998). Women first: ‘Titanic’ (1997), action adventure films and Hollywood’s

female audience. Historical Journal of Films, Radio, and Television, 18, 599-618.

Lord, W. (1955). A night to remember. New York, New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Lynch, D. (1992). Titanic: An illustrated history. New York, New York: Hyperion.

Marsh, E. (1997). James Cameron’s Titanic. New York, New York: Harper Perennial.

Thresh, P. (1992). Titanic: The truth behind the disaster. New York, New York: Crescent

Books.

Tibbals, G. (1997). The Titanic: The extraordinary story of the “unsinkable” ship.

Pleasantville, New York: Reader’s Digest.

EXAMPLE OF PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE Sarah Gregor Persuasive Outline Topic: Hearing Loss Audience: #73. You are speaking to members of local 795 of the United Auto Workers,

composed of 50 men and 70 women. The workers work for the Steering and Axle plant located in Livonia, MI. The economic status of the workers is middle-class, with a salary range of $30,000 to $50,000. The group was formed to discuss any issue that involves job security and work ethics. The educational level ranges from one year in college, to college graduate.

General Purpose: To persuade

Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that hearing is very valuable and if some precautions

are not taken then it may be lost forever. Thesis: Even though noise-induced hearing loss can be easily prevented, it is the number

one cause of deafness for people of all ages. I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: Huh? What? What is that you say? I didn’t quite hear

you. Can you repeat that? These are phrases or expressions that you expect to hear from your grandparents, but if you are not careful you too might be uttering these words.

B. Reason to Listen: Noise-induced hearing loss can affect all people, and it is

important to know the steps you can take to prevent it.

C. Thesis Statement: Even though noise-induced hearing loss can be easily prevented, it is the number one cause of deafness for people of all ages.

D. Credibility Statement:

1. I have done research in the library on the topic of hearing loss. 2. I have dedicated my college studies to the field of audiology. E. Preview of Main Points:

1. First, I will describe the two major ways noise-induced hearing loss

occurs. 2. Second, I will show you how the decibel scale works. 3. Finally, I will give you some advice on how to protect yourself from

noise-induced hearing loss.

II. Even though noise-induced hearing loss can be easily prevented, it is the number one cause of deafness for people of all ages.

A. Noise-induced hearing loss can be experienced in two different ways.

1. The first type of noise-induced hearing loss is called temporary threshold shift (TTS).

a. In a 1993 article from American Family Physician, Bahadori and

Bohne explained that TTS is caused by listening to a moderate level of noise for a short period of time.

b. Two main symptoms of TTS include ringing in the ears and

misperception of sound.

c. Bahadori and Bohne (1993) stated that this type of noise-induced hearing loss can be reversible if it is detected in time.

d. According to Nassar from an article in the British Journal of

Audiology in 2001, TTS can result from varying sources of noise, for example, spending sixty minutes in an aerobics class.

2. The second type of noise-induced hearing loss is a permanent threshold

shift (PTS).

a. Bohadori and Bohne (1993) explained that PTS is caused by exposure of loud sounds for either a long or short period of time.

b. Acoustic trauma is a very brief exposure to a loud noise and is a

common cause of PTS.

c. There is a very slim chance of regaining normal hearing range from this type of loss.

Transition: I have just informed you on the two different ways you can acquire noise-induced

hearing loss, now let us take a look at the decibel scale.

B. Noise-induced hearing loss can be best understood in terms of the decibel scale.

1. The decibel scale is a measurement of intensity. a. In their book Speech Science Primer from 1994, Borden, Harris, &

Raphael explained that intensity is defined by how loud a sound is.

b. The increments on the scale are in logarithmic steps with a range from 0-130.

c. Kalb stated in Newsweek from 1997 that any sound that measures over 85 decibels is dangerous to hearing.

2. The decibel scale shows the intensity of some common sounds.

a. Kalb (1997) reported that a rock concert measures 120 db, with 130 db being classified as painful.

b. Something so common as a lawn-mower measures 90 db.

Transition: Understanding how sounds measure on the decibel scale will now help you decide

which method of protection you will need to take to defend yourself against noise-induced hearing loss.

C. Noise-induced hearing loss can be eliminated by self-prevention. 1. Try to reduce noise in the public area.

a. Bahadori and Bohne (1993) recognized that reducing noise is very difficult for the general public as a whole.

b. They suggested that each individual should try to be considerate to

the public.

2. Wear ear plugs if the sound is unavoidable. a. Ear plugs are very inexpensive.

b. Bahadori and Bohne (1993) stated acknowledged that ear plugs can decrease the decibel measurement by 25 db.

c. Furthermore, according to Denniston in a 2000 article from

Industrial Distribution, using ear plugs may also reduce irritability, fatigue, and stress on jobs with frequent exposure to noise.

3. It is important to educate yourself.

a. Know the warning signs of noise-induced hearing loss.

b. Be aware of how different sounds measure on the decibel scale. III. Conclusion A. Review of Main Points: 1. Today I first described the two major ways noise-induced hearing loss

occurs. 2. Second, I showed you how the decibel scale works. 3. Finally, I gave you some advice on how to protect yourself from

noise-induced hearing loss.

B. Restate Thesis: Even though noise-induced hearing loss can be easily prevented, it is the number one cause of deafness for people of all ages.

C. Closure: The next time you are jammin’ out at a concert, please

remember to take along your ear plugs because you would not want it to be your last!

References Bahadori, R. S., & Bohne, B. A. (1993). Adverse effects of noise on hearing. American Family

Physician, 47, 1219-1260.

Borden, G., Harris, K., & Raphael, L. (1994). Speech science primer. Baltimore, MD: Williams

and Wilkins.

Denniston, V. (2000). Safety target report. Industrial Distribution, 89(11), S2. Kalb, C. (1997, August). Our embattled ears. Newsweek, 75-76. Nassar, G. (2001). The human temporary threshold shift after exposure to 60 minutes’ noise in

an aerobics class. British Journal of Audiology, 35(1), 99-102.

EXAMPLE OF INFORMATIVE SPEECH OUTLINE Sarah Putnam Informative Outline Topic: The Titanic General Purpose: To Inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about one of the most famous tragedies in

history, the Titanic. Thesis: From the disaster to the movie, the sinking of the Titanic remains one of

the most famous tragedies in history. I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: An American writer named Morgan Robertson once

wrote a book called The Wreck of the Titan. The book was about an “unsinkable” ship called the Titan that set sail from England to New York with many rich and famous passengers on board. On its journey, the Titan hit an iceberg in the North Atlantic and sunk. Many lives were lost because there were not enough lifeboats. So, what is so strange about this? Well, The Wreck of the Titan was written 14 years before the Titanic sank.

B. Reason to Listen: The sinking of the Titanic was one of the largest non-war

related disasters in history, and it is important to be knowledgeable about the past.

C. Thesis Statement: From the disaster to the movie, the sinking of the Titanic

remains one of the most famous tragedies in history. D. Credibility Statement: 1. I have been fascinated by the history of the Titanic for as long as I can

remember.

2. I have read and studied my collection of books about the Titanic many times, and have done research on the Internet.

E. Preview of Main Points: 1. First, I will discuss the Titanic itself.

2. Second, I will discuss the sinking of the ship. 3. Finally, I will discuss the movie that was made about the Titanic. II. From the disaster to the movie, the sinking of the Titanic remains one of the most

famous tragedies in history.

A. The Titanic was thought to be the largest, safest, most luxurious ship ever built.

1. At the time of her launch, she was the biggest existing ship and the largest moveable object ever built.

a. According to Geoff Tibbals, in his 1997 book The Titanic: The

extraordinary story of the “unsinkable” ship, the Titanic was 882 feet long and weighed about 46,000 tons.

b. This was 100 feet longer and 15,000 tons heavier than the

world’s current largest ships.

c. Thresh stated in Titanic: The truth behind the disaster, published in 1992 that the Titanic accommodated around 2,345 passengers and 860 crew-members.

2. The beautiful accommodations of the Titanic were decorated and

furnished with only the finest items.

a. According to a quotation from Shipbuilders magazine that is included in Peter Thresh’s 1992 book Titanic, “Everything has been done in regard to the furniture and fittings to make the first class accommodation more than equal to that provided in the finest hotels on shore” (p. 18).

b. Fine parlor suites located on the ship consisted of a sitting room,

two bedrooms, two wardrobe rooms, a private bath, and a lavatory.

c. The first class dining room was the largest on any liner; it could

serve 500 passengers at one sitting.

d. Other first class accommodations included a squash court, swimming pool, library, barber’s shop, Turkish baths, and a photographer’s dark room.

3. The Titanic was widely believed to be the safest ship ever built.

a. Tibbals, as previously cited, described the Titanic as having an outer layer that shielded an inner layer – a ‘double bottom’ – that was created to keep water out of the ship if the outer layer was pierced.

b. The bottom of the ship was divided into 16 watertight

compartments equipped with automatic watertight doors.

c. The doors could be closed immediately if water were to enter into the compartments.

d. Because of these safety features, the Titanic was deemed

unsinkable.

Transition: Now that I’ve discussed the Titanic itself, I will now discuss the tragedy that occurred on its maiden voyage.

B. The Titanic hit disaster head-on when it ran into an iceberg four days after its

departure. 1. The beginning of the maiden voyage was mostly uneventful. a. Tibbals (1997) stated that the ship departed from Queenstown in

Ireland at 1:30 pm on April 10th, 1912, destined for New York.

b. The weather was perfect for sailing – there was blue sky, light winds, and a calm ocean.

d. According to Walter Lord in A Night to Remember from 1955, the

Atlantic Ocean was like polished plate glass on the night of April 14.

2. The journey took a horrible turn when the ship struck an iceberg and

began to sink.

a. In the book Titanic: An illustrated history from 1992, Lynch explains that the collision occurred at 11:40 pm on Sunday, April 14.

b. According to Robert Ballard’s 1988 book Exploring the Titanic,

the largest part of the iceberg was under water.

c. Some of the ship’s watertight compartments had been punctured and the first five compartments rapidly filled with water.

d. Tibbals (1997) wrote that distress rockets were fired and distress signals were sent out, but there were no ships close enough to arrive in time.

3. As the ship went down, some were rescued but the majority of

passengers had no place to go. a. Thresh (1992) stated that there were only 20 lifeboats on the ship.

b. This was only enough for about half of the 2,200 people that were on board.

c. The lifeboats were filled quickly with women and children

loaded first. 4. The ship eventually disappeared from sight.

a. Tibbals (1997) explains that at 2:20 am on Monday, the ship broke in half and slowly slipped under the water.

b. At 4:10 am, the Carpathia answered Titanic’s distress call and arrived to rescue those floating in the lifeboats.

c. Lynch (1992) reported that in the end, 1,522 lives were lost. Transition: Now that we have learned about the history of the Titanic, I will discuss the

movie that was made about it. C. A movie depicting the Titanic and a group of fictional characters was made. 1. The movie was written, produced, and directed by James Cameron. a. According to Marsh in James Cameron’s Titanic from 1997,

Cameron set out to write a film that would bring the event of the Titanic to life.

b. Cameron conducted six months of research to compile a highly

detailed time line so that the film would be realistic.

c. Cameron spent more time on the Titanic than the ships’ original passengers because he made 12 trips to the wreck site that lasted between ten and twelve hours each.

2. Making Titanic was extremely expensive and involved much hard work. a. According to a 1998 article from the Historical Journal of Films,

Radio, and Television, Kramer stated that the film had a 250 million dollar budget.

b. A full-sized replica of the ship was constructed in Baja

California, Mexico in a 17 million gallon oceanfront tank.

c. Cameron assembled an expedition to dive to the wreck on the ocean floor to film footage that was later used in the opening scenes of the movie.

d. Marsh (1997) further explained that the smallest details were

attended to, including imprinting the thousands of pieces china, crystal, and silver cutlery used in the dining room scenes with White Star’s emblem and pattern.

3. The movie was extremely successful.

a. Kramer (1998) reported that Titanic made approximately 600 million dollars in the United States, making it the #1 movie of all time.

b. It made approximately 1.8 billion dollars world-wide and is also

the #1 movie of all time world-wide.

c. Titanic was nominated for a record eight Golden Globe Awards only a few weeks after its release, and won four.

d. It was also nominated for a record fourteen Academy Awards,

and it won eleven. III. Conclusion A. Review of Main Points: 1. Today I first discussed the Titanic itself. 2. Second, I discussed the sinking of the ship. 3. Finally, I discussed the movie that was made about the Titanic.

B. Restate Thesis: From the disaster to the movie, the sinking of the Titanic remains one of the most famous tragedies in history.

C. Closure: In conclusion, remember The Wreck of the Titan, the

story written fourteen years before the Titanic sank. It now seems as if it was an eerie prophecy, or a case of life

imitating art. Whatever the case, the loss of lives on the Titanic was tremendous, and it is something that should never be forgotten.

References Ballard, R. (1988). Exploring the Titanic. Toronto, Ontario: Madison Press Books.

Kramer, P. (1998). Women first: ‘Titanic’ (1997), action adventure films and Hollywood’s

female audience. Historical Journal of Films, Radio, and Television, 18, 599-618.

Lord, W. (1955). A night to remember. New York, New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Lynch, D. (1992). Titanic: An illustrated history. New York, New York: Hyperion.

Marsh, E. (1997). James Cameron’s Titanic. New York, New York: Harper Perennial.

Thresh, P. (1992). Titanic: The truth behind the disaster. New York, New York: Crescent

Books.

Tibbals, G. (1997). The Titanic: The extraordinary story of the “unsinkable” ship.

Pleasantville, New York: Reader’s Digest.

EXAMPLE OF PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE Sarah Gregor Persuasive Outline Topic: Hearing Loss Audience: #73. You are speaking to members of local 795 of the United Auto Workers,

composed of 50 men and 70 women. The workers work for the Steering and Axle plant located in Livonia, MI. The economic status of the workers is middle-class, with a salary range of $30,000 to $50,000. The group was formed to discuss any issue that involves job security and work ethics. The educational level ranges from one year in college, to college graduate.

General Purpose: To persuade

Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that hearing is very valuable and if some precautions

are not taken then it may be lost forever. Thesis: Even though noise-induced hearing loss can be easily prevented, it is the number

one cause of deafness for people of all ages. I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: Huh? What? What is that you say? I didn’t quite hear

you. Can you repeat that? These are phrases or expressions that you expect to hear from your grandparents, but if you are not careful you too might be uttering these words.

B. Reason to Listen: Noise-induced hearing loss can affect all people, and it is

important to know the steps you can take to prevent it.

C. Thesis Statement: Even though noise-induced hearing loss can be easily prevented, it is the number one cause of deafness for people of all ages.

D. Credibility Statement:

1. I have done research in the library on the topic of hearing loss. 2. I have dedicated my college studies to the field of audiology. E. Preview of Main Points:

1. First, I will describe the two major ways noise-induced hearing loss

occurs. 2. Second, I will show you how the decibel scale works. 3. Finally, I will give you some advice on how to protect yourself from

noise-induced hearing loss.

II. Even though noise-induced hearing loss can be easily prevented, it is the number one cause of deafness for people of all ages.

A. Noise-induced hearing loss can be experienced in two different ways.

1. The first type of noise-induced hearing loss is called temporary threshold shift (TTS).

a. In a 1993 article from American Family Physician, Bahadori and

Bohne explained that TTS is caused by listening to a moderate level of noise for a short period of time.

b. Two main symptoms of TTS include ringing in the ears and

misperception of sound.

c. Bahadori and Bohne (1993) stated that this type of noise-induced hearing loss can be reversible if it is detected in time.

d. According to Nassar from an article in the British Journal of

Audiology in 2001, TTS can result from varying sources of noise, for example, spending sixty minutes in an aerobics class.

2. The second type of noise-induced hearing loss is a permanent threshold

shift (PTS).

a. Bohadori and Bohne (1993) explained that PTS is caused by exposure of loud sounds for either a long or short period of time.

b. Acoustic trauma is a very brief exposure to a loud noise and is a

common cause of PTS.

c. There is a very slim chance of regaining normal hearing range from this type of loss.

Transition: I have just informed you on the two different ways you can acquire noise-induced

hearing loss, now let us take a look at the decibel scale.

B. Noise-induced hearing loss can be best understood in terms of the decibel scale.

1. The decibel scale is a measurement of intensity. a. In their book Speech Science Primer from 1994, Borden, Harris, &

Raphael explained that intensity is defined by how loud a sound is.

b. The increments on the scale are in logarithmic steps with a range from 0-130.

c. Kalb stated in Newsweek from 1997 that any sound that measures over 85 decibels is dangerous to hearing.

2. The decibel scale shows the intensity of some common sounds.

a. Kalb (1997) reported that a rock concert measures 120 db, with 130 db being classified as painful.

b. Something so common as a lawn-mower measures 90 db.

Transition: Understanding how sounds measure on the decibel scale will now help you decide

which method of protection you will need to take to defend yourself against noise-induced hearing loss.

C. Noise-induced hearing loss can be eliminated by self-prevention. 1. Try to reduce noise in the public area.

a. Bahadori and Bohne (1993) recognized that reducing noise is very difficult for the general public as a whole.

b. They suggested that each individual should try to be considerate to

the public.

2. Wear ear plugs if the sound is unavoidable. a. Ear plugs are very inexpensive.

b. Bahadori and Bohne (1993) stated acknowledged that ear plugs can decrease the decibel measurement by 25 db.

c. Furthermore, according to Denniston in a 2000 article from

Industrial Distribution, using ear plugs may also reduce irritability, fatigue, and stress on jobs with frequent exposure to noise.

3. It is important to educate yourself.

a. Know the warning signs of noise-induced hearing loss.

b. Be aware of how different sounds measure on the decibel scale. III. Conclusion A. Review of Main Points: 1. Today I first described the two major ways noise-induced hearing loss

occurs. 2. Second, I showed you how the decibel scale works. 3. Finally, I gave you some advice on how to protect yourself from

noise-induced hearing loss.

B. Restate Thesis: Even though noise-induced hearing loss can be easily prevented, it is the number one cause of deafness for people of all ages.

C. Closure: The next time you are jammin’ out at a concert, please

remember to take along your ear plugs because you would not want it to be your last!

References Bahadori, R. S., & Bohne, B. A. (1993). Adverse effects of noise on hearing. American Family

Physician, 47, 1219-1260.

Borden, G., Harris, K., & Raphael, L. (1994). Speech science primer. Baltimore, MD: Williams

and Wilkins.

Denniston, V. (2000). Safety target report. Industrial Distribution, 89(11), S2. Kalb, C. (1997, August). Our embattled ears. Newsweek, 75-76. Nassar, G. (2001). The human temporary threshold shift after exposure to 60 minutes’ noise in

an aerobics class. British Journal of Audiology, 35(1), 99-102.