+1 (208) 254-6996 essayswallet@gmail.com
  

I need someone to rewrite my discussion chapter of my thesis which I have completed but have to redo according to my supervisor’s instruction,You can find the details of my research question and hypothesis in file attached.


There are altogether 16 hypotheses and their results you can find in the file. Each results of hypothesis needs to be explained across all respondents, asian countries’ respondents and non-asian country’s respondents. 

Following is the first hypothesis

H1a: Autonomy has a positive relationship with vigour

Across all respondent’s autonomy increases vigour but has not impact on vigour in both Asian and non-Asian countries. The finding across all respondents is consistent with the JDR model and previous studies (references of JDR model and other model related to turnover intention and motivation). However, the finding in Asia and non-Asian countries is inconsistent with JDR but consistent with studies such as …

Explain why/when autonomy improves vigour – find reasons explain them and find support in literature

1. Summarise the finding by hypotheses 

2. State whether it agrees with JDR model theory or not and other studies

3. Explain why and when? Reasons why the hypothesis supported or not in Asian and Non-Asian countries with references

4. Try to give examples 

similarly, all hypothesis needs to be done.

Below is the comments provided by my supervisor after I have submitted the below file. You can go through the comments below and also the comments mentioned in the file which is highlighted in green colour.

The same comments applied more less across the entire discussion 

  1. for each hypothesis, please restate the finding on all respondents and across the regions (this you have done)
  2. for all hypotheses, indicate whether the finding is consistent with the JDR or not 
  3. for the findings whether it agrees with the hypothesis or not, indicate studies that found similar findings 
  4. for each finding across respondents or across the regional areas, provide specific reasons from within the context of our study in terms of the demographics or the regions to show why the finding is the way it it. this is where you are making your contribution to research. Like i explained like that, provide some examples to support your point. Why one hypothesis be supported in Asia but not Africa – there would have to be certain factors in these contexts that explain these differences. In the discussion section, we are not re re-presenting literature but we are explaining the “why”of the findings.
  5. Please revise the discussion of the findings based on these comments. 

Thanks a lot.

1

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 10

Chapter 6 Discussion

6.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the findings presented in the three preceding chapters. This chapter proceeds as follows. An overview of the research questions, variables and hypotheses and a summary of findings on hypotheses results in Section 6.2. Each Hypotheses results are discussed in Section 6.3.

6.2 Overview of Research Questions, variables and hypothesis and results

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between job resources, work engagement, emotional ill-health and turnover intentions (Job Demands and Resources Model JD-R Model). In this section, the overall summary of the regression analysis results will be provided. The findings on each research question is presented in table xx below and explained.

Table xx: Summary of hypotheses test results

Hypotheses supported?
Research QuestionsHypothesesAll respondentsAsian countriesNon-Asian countries
RQ1What is the impact of job resources on vigour?H1a: Autonomy has a positive relationship with vigourYesNoNo
H1b: Supervisory support has a positive relationship with vigourYesYesNo
H1c: Career development has a positive relationship with vigourNoYesYes
RQ2What is the impact of job resources on dedication?H2a: Autonomy has a positive relationship with dedicationNoNoNo
H2b: Supervisory support has a positive relationship with dedicationYesYesYes
H2c: Career development has a positive relationship with dedicationYesYesYes
RQ3What is the impact of job resources on absorption?H3a: Autonomy has a positive relationship with absorptionNoNoNo
H3b: Supervisory support has a positive relationship with absorptionNoNoNo
H3c: Career development has a positive relationship with absorptionYesYesYes
RQ4What is the impact of job resources and work engagement on emotional ill-healthH4a: Autonomy has a negative relationship with emotional ill-healthNoNoNo
H4b: Supervisory support has a negative relationship with emotional ill-healthYesNoNo
H4c: Career Development has a negative relationship with emotional ill-healthNoNoNo
H4d: Vigour has a negative relationship with emotional ill-healthYesNoYes
H4e: Dedication has a negative relationship with emotional ill-healthYesYesNo
H4f: Absorption has a negative relationship with emotional ill-healthNoNoNo
RQ5What is the impact of job resources and work engagement on turnover intention?H5a: Autonomy has a negative relationship with turnover intentionNoNoNo
H5b: Supervisory support has a negative relationship with turnover intentionNoNoNo
H5c: Career development has a negative relationship with turnover intentionYesYesYes
H5d: Vigour has a negative relationship with turnover intentionYesNoYes
H5e: Dedication has a negative relationship with turnover intentionNoNoNo
H5f: Absorption has a negative relationship with turnover intentionNoNoNo
Dimensions of the variables· Job Resources – Autonomy; Supervisory support; Career developmentWork Engagement – Vigour; Dedication; Absorption

6.3 Discussion of results

In this section the results will be discussed by all hypothesis mentioned above.

H1a: Autonomy has a positive relationship with vigour

Across all the respondents, there is a positive relationship between vigour and autonomy at the workplace. However, the results from respondents of Asian and non-Asians countries indicate no positive relationship between autonomy and vigour at the workplace. The Asian and non-Asian have young population working, and they do not have autonomy at the workplace since they work under the supervision of experienced staff. The results of all respondents agree with the JD-R model, whereby an increase in autonomy is one of the motivational factors at the workplace. When the employees have autonomy in carrying out their duties at the workplace, there is an increase in vigour, and work stress decreases. Broeck et al., (2008) explains that employees that have access to resources they require at the workplace experience autonomy at work (psychological freedom). The autonomy employees feel belonging to the organization, are competent, more vigorous, and feel unexhausted. Conversely, employees experiencing high job demands lack autonomy and feel exhausted. Therefore, organizations wanting to enhance employee vigour may consider providing employees with the job resources requirements that will help them to implement their roles effectively. Comment by Sarah Eyaa: For all findings on all hypotheses indicate whether the findings agree with the JDR or not and indicate the studies that found similar results Explain the specific factors within the context of the study as to why autonomy improves vigour among the respondents of our study Also explain specific factors relevant to the Asian and Non-Asian context as to why autonomy would not have a significant impact on vigour Comment by Sarah Eyaa: Please provide references to support the discussion

H1b: Supervisory support has a positive relationship with vigour

The respondents from across all countries and Asian countries indicated that there is a positive relationship between supervisory support and vigour. However, in non-Asian countries, respondents indicated no positive relationship between supervisory and vigour. In Asian countries, the employees get the required supervisory support at the workplace, thereby improving their vigour at work. In non-Asian countries, the supervisor support needs to be enhanced, especially in African countries. The transformational leadership style has a positive relationship with employees’ vigour. Transformational supervisors with high levels of peer support have low levels of aggression and employee burnout. In a study by Ozlem and Omer (2015) on the relationship of supervisory and vigour within banks in Pakistan, they found no relationship between supervisory and vigour. The lack of relationship was attributed to the situation where employees have a contract with the organization and not individual. Kotze (2018) states that employers need to provide platforms where managers and supervisors can interact and discuss work-related issues with their juniors openly and honestly. The openness will help to improve the employees’ psychological wellbeing and improve motivation. Comment by Sarah Eyaa: See previous comment on referring to JDR model and previous studies Please provide more specific reasons as to why the result on the relationship is the way it is for all respondents Comment by Sarah Eyaa: Provide a reference and example Comment by Sarah Eyaa: Does this apply to all respondents, Asia or non-AsianPlease provide more specific reasons to explain the finding across all respondents and the geographical regions

H1c: Career development has a positive relationship with vigour

All respondents stated no positive relationships between career development and vigour, while respondents from Asian and non-Asian countries indicated that there is a positive relationship. In Asian and non-Asian countries, most of the respondents are still developing their careers, and they believe an opportunity to build their careers would increase vigour. Concerning the JD-R model, when employees have a chance to advance their careers, there is an increase in their motivation to work. Kotze (2018) found out that employee satisfaction helped to reduce employee burnout and improve motivation. Employee satisfaction is achieved through workplace practices that benefit the employee, such as employee care and opportunities to develop employees’ careers. Therefore, organizations should invest in employees’ personal development, which will be repaid through improved employee output at work. The organizations enhancing the personal development of the employees benefit from an improved competitive advantage in the market and an increase in revenues. Comment by Sarah Eyaa: Is this in relation to the data set we used or generally? If generally, provide statistics to support your point Comment by Sarah Eyaa: This point is for the recommendation section and not discussion section

H2a: Autonomy has a positive relationship with dedication

All the respondents, Asian and non-Asian countries respondents indicated that there is no positive relationship between autonomy and dedication. The reason for the negative response could be because dedication could result from many other sources, such as an increase in the salary. Thus, autonomy contribution to dedication could be insignificant in Asian and non-Asian countries. However, the findings in this study conflict with results from some previous studies. According to Choo and Nasurdin (2016), autonomy has a positive relationship with dedication. When employees have the autonomy, there is an increase in employee engagement, which comprises various factors such as dedication, willingness, and vigour. The employees working in an autonomous environment are likely to persist difficult times in the organization. Gonzalez and Melo (2019) also agree with the above findings that autonomy enhances work engagement, which includes dedication. Comment by Sarah Eyaa: Give examples of these previous studies mention two or three of them in brackets

H2b: Supervisory support has a positive relationship with dedication

All respondents, Asian and non-Asian countries, agree there is a positive relationship between supervisory support and dedication. In any workplace, either in Asian or non-Asian countries, when supervisory support is enhanced, this will strengthen dedication. The results agree with the JD-R model, whereby when employees have a supportive environment at the workplace, their dedication at the workplace improves. Vann (2017) found that lack of supervisor support in restaurant businesses in the US lead to a decrease in profits by USD151 million annually. When there is an improvement in employee support through supervisory support, there will be an improvement in job satisfaction of employees, which could lead to a behavioural change of employees, wellbeing, and dedication leading to improved organizational sustainability. In the hospitality industry, the lack of employment support is the leading cause of the high turnover of employees in the sector.

Similarly, according to Siti et al., (2018), employees that get required support from their supervisors; they are more effective in their work performance. When there is enough support of the employees in their work, there will be a decline in employee turnover, thereby enhancing employee and organization sustainability.

H2c: Career development has a positive relationship with dedication

There was an agreement of a positive relationship between career development and dedication from all respondents. In a typical working environment, when the employer provides an opportunity for career development, it improves employee dedication. The findings agree with the JD-R model on career development. From the JD-R model, one of the strategies to enhance motivation to the workplace is providing an opportunity for staff to develop their careers. Career development helps to reduce job stress, which would cause a reduction in employee output and quit. According to Amdany (2017), employee retention contributes to the competitiveness and sustainability of the organization. Employee retention saves an organization the costs for recruiting and training new employees. In the communication sector, investment in employee retention contributes towards customer satisfaction, business continuity, employee satisfaction, and organization competitiveness in the market (Amdany, 2017). From the findings by Amady (2017), Safaricom, a communications company in Kenya, the company has invested in the career development of its staff, which reduced the high turnover of the staff, especially the frontline staff. The career development programs that Safaricom provides for its staff include continuous training, mentorship, coaching, career counselling, and well-outlined career growth ladder.

H3a: Autonomy has a positive relationship with absorption

All the respondents, including respondents from Asian and non-Asian countries, disagree that there is no positive relationship between autonomy and absorption at the workplace. The reason for the negative response from Asian and non-Asian countries is because respondents still have low levels of autonomy. Thus they do not believe that autonomy would enhance absorption at the workplace. From the JD-R model, there is a positive relationship between autonomy and absorption. Therefore, the above findings are inconsistent with the JD-R model. In a study on the effect of transformational leadership and job autonomy on employee engagement, the findings showed a positive relationship between job autonomy and work engagement, which means that autonomy, has a positive relationship with absorption (Ozlem & Omer, 2015). In another study carried out by Amanda et al., (2015), the findings indicate a positive relationship between autonomy and absorption. The research study evaluated autonomy effects on employee engagement, whereby engagement was measured through vigour, absorption, and dedication. The findings indicated that employees that enjoyed autonomy from their supervisors had improved employee engagement resulting in higher levels of employee performance as rated by the supervisors. High levels of autonomy among employees also help to reduce defiant behaviours from the employees.

H3b: Supervisory support has a positive relationship with absorption

All the respondents, including Asian and non-Asian countries, stated that there is no positive relationship between supervisory support and absorption. The reason for the negative response in Asian and non-Asian countries is because of the belief that absorption is a personal character, and it is not influenced by supervisory support. According to Siti et al., (2018), engaged employees possess high levels of dedication exhibited through employee being enthusiastic, absorption exhibited through immersion and committed at work, and vigour exhibited through high energies. The findings show a positive relationship between supervisory support and employee absorption. When the supervisor is supportive, their subordinates show high levels of self-efficacy, which includes absorption. On the other hand, low levels of self-efficacy for employees can lead to reduced work output, which is a cost to the organization. The study recommends supervisor support can be achieved through training programs and mentorship. The supervisors can identify their weaknesses through training programs, and improve on them as their weaknesses can have negative effects on the employee self-efficacy.

H3c: Career development has a positive relationship with absorption

The Asian, non-Asian countries and all respondents agree that there is a positive relationship between career development and absorption. The reason for a positive response is because career developments improve the personal character and, therefore, would enhance absorption. The findings in this study agree with JD-R model recommendations and findings by Akkermans et al., (2015). They also found a positive relationship between career development and employee engagement for young professionals. When an organization offers young employees opportunities for career development, which enhance their career skills, there is an improvement in employee engagement and retention. Also, a study by Semwal (2017) found a positive relationship between career development and employee engagement, which included absorption. If an organization wants to improve its competitiveness in the market, there is a need to invest in career development. Career development helps to strengthen employer and employee bonds, improve employee work skills, increase employee output, and reduces the cases of high employee turnover. Therefore, the recommendation from previous researches is for human resource managers to integrate career development strategies within the organization, which will improve employee performance ratings.

H4a: Autonomy has a negative relationship with emotional ill-health

All respondents, including Asian and non-Asian countries respondents, indicated there is no negative relationship between autonomy and emotional ill-health. The reason for a positive response in Asian and non-Asian countries is because they have a level of autonomy at their workplace and thus unlikely to suffer from emotional ill-health. Also, there is a belief that emotional ill-health may result from other factors such as pressure at the workplace. In a situation where there is a lack of autonomy, people are likely to suffer from emotional ill-health resulting from job stress. An organization needs to provide some level of autonomy for the employees to make decisions, thereby reducing the occurrence of job stress. For example, in an autocratic leadership form of governance, whereby the citizens lack free will to express their views, despite the citizens having access to healthy foods, mental health is inevitable. The citizens will experience increased levels of emotional ill-health resulting from stress and depression. A study by Park and Searcy (2012) identified a negative relationship between autonomy and mental health of workers in working in a competitive environment. The employees with higher levels of autonomy had lower levels of mental health. When considering emotional ill-health as part of mental health, therefore, there is a negative relationship between autonomy and emotional ill-health. Thus, organizations need to provide employees with higher levels of autonomy to reduce the levels of emotional ill-health at the workplace.

H4b: Supervisory support has a negative relationship with emotional ill-health

All respondents stated that there is a negative relationship between supervisory support and emotional ill-health, which means that an increase in supervisory support leads to a decrease in emotional ill-health. However, the Asian and non-Asian countries’ respondents disagreed with the negative relationship between supervisory support and emotional ill-health. The reason for disagreement in Asian and non-Asian countries is because of supervisory support helps to improve work output performance but has no relationship with emotional ill-health. According to the JD-R model, supervisory support is one of the job resources that help in reducing workplace stress and improve motivation. When supervisory support is unavailable or minimal, the employees are likely to experience higher levels of work stress, which will lead to emotional ill-health. A study by Wickramasinghe (2012) in Sri Lanka proves that there is a negative relationship between supervisory support and job stress. Supervisor support is identified as an important moderator for job stress. Therefore, for organizations that want to reduce high levels of job stress among the employees, improving supervisor support is one of the best ways of lowering stress. Caesens et al., (2014) also found a negative relationship between supervisor support and work-holism, which included perceived work stress. The findings also found that the most crucial support in reducing job stress, which would cause emotional ill-health, was supervisor support. Therefore, it is paramount for organizations to provide employees with necessary supervisory support to reduce the occurrence of emotional ill-health at the workplace.

H4c: Career Development has a negative relationship with emotional ill-health

All respondents, Asian and non-Asian countries, reported that there is no negative relationship between career development and emotional ill-health. The disagreement in Asian and non-Asian countries, despite an organization supporting career development, the pressure at the workplace could result in emotional ill-health. The study findings are in disagreement with the JD-R model, which places career development as one of the job resources that reduce workplace stress. According to Patro and Kumar (2019), stress management in an organization helps to reduce the occurrence of high levels of stress, which could lead to the emotional and mental health of the employees. The organizations, especially those working in high-pressure environments, need to have mechanisms of managing stress among their employees to reduce the occurrence of emotional ill-health. Therefore, the findings in this study disagree with the previous studies that found an inverse relationship between career development and emotional ill-health exhibited through workplace stress.

H4d: Vigour has a negative relationship with emotional ill-health

All respondents and non-Asian countries respondents indicated that there is a negative relationship between vigour and emotional ill-health. However, Asian countries’ respondents disagreed that vigour has an inverse relationship with emotional ill-health. The reason for the difference in responses between Asian and non-Asian countries is differences in the causes of emotional ill-health. In Asian countries, emotional ill-health results from unfavourable working conditions such as lack of appropriate working tools. When employees exhibit high vigour at the workplace, they are likely to have lower levels of emotional ill-health.

Nonetheless, environmental working conditions may dictate otherwise. Frone and Blais (2019) found a negative relationship between organization downsizing and vigour and emotional stress. When an organization is downsizing, employees tend to increase levels of vigour and commitment at the workplace to save their jobs during downsizing. Still, the high vigour could result in an increase in emotional ill-health exhibited through high levels of stress. When a situation, such as organization downsizing occurs, the relationship between vigour and emotional ill-health changes from being negative and becomes positive.

H4e: Dedication has a negative relationship with emotional ill-health

All respondents, including respondents from Asian countries, agree that there is a negative relationship between dedication and emotional ill-health. On the contrary, the respondents from non-Asian countries state their no negative relationship. The reason for differences in response between Asian and non-Asian countries is because employers encourage employee personal dedication, which helps to lower emotional ill-health. In the non-Asian countries, employers believe that provision of a good working environment is the one that can help improve employee dedication. When evaluating dedication, the factors that result in employee dedication are factors promoting positive employee engagement. Thus, employees with improved work engagement and are dedicated to their work tend to have less emotional stress that would cause emotional ill-health. Therefore, the findings from all respondents and Asian respondents are in line with the JD-R model. Nishanthini and Asanka (2019) found a negative relationship between employee engagement and workplace stress. However, their findings indicated that an optimal level of stress needs to be maintained to enhance employee engagement. The optimal level of stress refers to the stress level that would not have negative effects on the emotional wellbeing of the employee. Therefore, the findings from Asian countries and all respondents agree with the previous findings that dedication is inversely related to emotional ill-health.

H4f: Absorption has a negative relationship with emotional ill-health

All respondents, including respondents from Asian and non-Asian countries, disagree there is a negative relationship between absorption and emotional ill-health. Absorption refers to the commitment of an employee at the workplace. The reason for disagreement in Asian and non-Asian countries is absorption is a personal character and is not affected by emotional ill-health, which may occur in the workplace. For employees working in high-pressure areas such as customer service, absorption is essential for the achievement of their targets. The absorption can be emotionally draining when there is a lack of the other job resources available to support the employees. According to Anaza et al., (2016), working in a high-pressure environment requires all job resources support, including emotional expressiveness. Therefore, absorption tends to have a positive relationship with emotional ill health when there is a lack of other supportive measures. Thus, the relationship can be negative or positive, based on the existing working environment.

H5a: Autonomy has a negative relationship with turnover intention

All respondents, including Asian and non-Asian countries respondents, disagree that autonomy has a negative relationship with turnover intention. The reason for disagreement in Asian and non-Asian countries is because of turnover results from other factors such as seeking better payment rather than a lack of autonomy at the workplace. The findings agree with the JD-R model, where autonomy helps to reduce employee turnover in an organization. In a study done by Galleta et al., (2011), among healthcare workers in Italy, the findings indicate an inverse relationship between autonomy and turnover. For organizations to improve employee productivity and reduce turnover, they need to offer higher levels of employee autonomy. Additionally, Liu et al. (2011) also found similar results. An autonomy-supportive organization has higher employee retention as employees are more satisfied working in the organization. Therefore, the findings in this study disagree with the previous findings, which found the existence of an inverse relationship between autonomy and employee turnover.

H5b: Supervisory support has a negative relationship with turnover intention

The findings indicate a disagreement of a negative relationship between supervisory support and turnover intention across all respondents, including Asian and non-Asian countries respondents. The reason for disagreement in both Asian and non-Asian countries is because despite employees having supervisory support, they still desire to move to organizations that can offer better payment and working environment. The findings from this study disagree with the JD-R model, which expresses an inverse relationship between supervisory support and employee turnover. Nichols et al. (2016) found that the provision of supervisory support and affective commitment reduced the intention of employee turnover among frontline healthcare workers. Further to this, the findings indicated that supervisory support in the exemption of affective commitment did not affect the turnover intention of employees. Therefore, the findings of this study do not agree with the previous research findings, which found an inverse relationship between supervisor support and employee turnover.

H5c: Career development has a negative relationship with turnover intention

All respondents, including respondents from Asian and non-Asian countries, agree that there is a negative relationship between career development and turnover intent. The reason for agreement in Asian and non-Asian countries is because employees would move to another organization that would offer better opportunities for career development. The findings in this study agree with the JD-R model, which shows an inverse relationship between career development and turnover. Arshad (2016) found a strong influence of employee turnover intent when there are low career development opportunities. In the study done in the banking sector in Malaysia, the institutions have to invest more in the career development of the employees to increase the levels of employee retention. Biswakarma (2016) also found that career development had an inverse relation to turnover intention in Nepal. The findings rank promotion speed and growth in remuneration as frontrunners in influencing turnover intention. Thus, the findings in this study are consistent with previous findings of an inverse relationship between career development and turnover intention.

H5d: Vigour has a negative relationship with turnover intention

All respondents and non-Asian countries respondents agree there is a negative relationship between vigour and turnover intention. Contrary, the Asian countries’ respondents are in disagreement. The reason for differences in responses between Asian and non-Asian countries is because, in Asian countries, high vigour among employees may result in employee poaching by competing organizations, thereby increasing employee turnover. Research findings indicate that motivating work characteristics reduce turnover intention (Galletta et al., 2011). Vigour is one of the attributes in the JD-R model that arises from job resources and, therefore, is an expression of motivation at the workplace. Employees showing high levels of vigour at the workplace have low turnover intentions. Thus, the existence of the inverse relationship between vigour and turnover intent is true. Organizations need to improve on various job resources factors such as career development and supervisor support to enhance employee motivation, expressed through vigour.

H5e: Dedication has a negative relationship with turnover intention

There was a disagreement that dedication has a negative relationship to turnover intention across all respondents, including Asian and non-Asian countries respondents. The reason for disagreement in Asian and non-Asian countries is because dedication is a personal character, and it does not hinder employees from seeking better opportunities in competing organizations. Dedication is an expression of satisfaction at the workplace when the employees find the working environment appropriate. In the JD-R model, dedication expresses the outcomes of job resources (Burke & Page, 2017). Therefore, when there is a high dedication to the work, the turnover intention is likely to be lower. The employees’ output will be higher when dedication is highest, provided the organization maintains the supportive factors consistently. Thus, the findings from this study disagree with the JD-R model of an inverse relationship between dedication and turnover intent.

H5f: Absorption has a negative relationship with turnover intention

All respondents, including Asian and non-Asian countries respondents, disagree that absorption has a negative relationship to turnover intent. The reason for disagreement in Asian and non-Asian countries is absorption is a personal character that has no effect on employees seeking better employment opportunities, which increases employee turnover. The findings in the study disagree with the JD-R model, which show an inverse relationship. Absorption at the workplace is an expression of job resources that foster the positive productivity of employees at the workplace. When the supportive measures are put in place in an organization, high absorption levels help to express employee engagement at work (Burke & Page, 2017). Employees with high levels of absorption have low turnover intentions due to the satisfaction they are getting at the workplace.

References

Akkermans, J., Brenninkmeijer, V., Schaufeli, W. & Blonk, R. (2015). ’It’s all about career skills: effectiveness of a career development intervention for young employees. Human Resource Management, 54, pp 533-551. 10.1002/hrm.21633.

Amanda, S., Kerstin, A., Catherine, T., & Emma, S. (2013) The role of employee engagement in the relationship between job design and task performance, citizenship and deviant behaviours. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24 (13). pp. 2608-2627. 10.1080/09585192.2012.744334

Amdany, J., M. (2017). The perceived effect of career development practices on employee retention at the safaricom call centers in Kenyahttp://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/102508/Amdany

Anaza, N. A., Nowlin, E. L., & Wu, G. J. (2016). Staying engaged on the job: The role of emotional labor, job resources, and customer orientation. European Journal of Marketing, 50(7), pp. 1470-1492. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-11-2014-0682

Arshad, P. (2016). Linking career development practices to turnover intention. The Mediating Role Of Perceived Organizational Support. 10.13140/RG.2.1.1928.0241.

Biswakarma, G. (2016). Organizational career growth and employees‟ turnover intentions: an empirical evidence from nepalese private commercial banks. International Academic Journal of Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management, 3(2), pp. 10-26. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/aa8d/309ef40ba102c56a5b6143bf42faf5f46b80.pdf

Broeck, V., A., Maarten, V., Hans, W., & Lens, W. (2008). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction. Work & Stress, 22, pp 277-294. 10.1080/02678370802393672.

Burke, R. J., & Page, K. M. (2017). Research handbook on work and wellbeing. Edward Elgar Publishing

Caesens, G., Stinglhamber, F., & Luypaert, G. (2014). The impact of work engagement and workaholism on wellbeing: The role of work-related social support. Career Development International. 19. 813-835. 10.1108/CDI-09-2013-0114.

Choo, L., & Nasurdin, A. (2016). Supervisor support and work engagement of hotel employees in Malaysia. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 31, pp 2-18. 10.1108/GM-11-2014-0105.

Frone, M., R., & Blais, A. (2019). Organizational Downsizing, Work Conditions, and Employee Outcomes: Identifying Targets for Workplace Intervention among Survivors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(719). doi:10.3390/ijerph17030719

Galletta, M., Portoghese, I. & Battistelli, A. (2011). Intrinsic motivation, job autonomy and turnover intention in the Italian healthcare: the mediating role of affective commitment. Journal of Management Research, 3, pp 1-19. 10.5296/jmr.v3i2.61.

Gonzalez, R., V., D. & Melo, T., M. (2019). How do autonomy, cohesion and integration of teamwork impact the dynamic capability? Journal Total Quality Management & Business Excellence. doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2019.1636640

Kotze, M. (2018). How job resources and personal resources influence work engagement and burnout. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 9(2), pp.148-164, https:// doi.org/10.1108/AJEMS-05-2017-0096

Liu, D., Zhang, S., Wang, L. & Lee, T. (2011). The effects of autonomy and empowerment on employee turnover: test of a multilevel model in teams. The Journal of applied psychology. 96. 10.1037/a0024518.

Nichols, H. M., Swanberg, J. E., Bright, C. (2016). How does supervisor support influence turnover intent among frontline hospital workers? The mediating role of affective commitment. The Health Care Manager Volume, 35(3), pp. 266–279. https://www.academia.edu/31118923/How_Does_Supervisor_Support_Influence_Turnov er_Intent_Among_Frontline_Hospital_Workers_The_Mediating_Role_of_Affective_Co mmitment

Nishanthini , S., & Asanka, A., U. (2015). Impact of occupational stress on employee engagement. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2699785

Ozlem, G., & Omer, F. (2015). Linking transformational leadership to work engagement and the mediator effect of job autonomy: a study in a Turkish private non-profit university. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, pp 963-971. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.274

Park, R., & Searcy, D. (2012). Job autonomy as a predictor of mental wellbeing: the moderating role of quality-competitive environment. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27. 10.1007/s10869-011-9244-3.

Patro, C., S., & Kumar, K. (2019). Effect of workplace stress management strategies on employees’ efficiencyhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/333507314

Semwal, M. (2017). Impact of employees training and career development on their engagement: a study using OCM and UWES measurement scaleshttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/324163999

Siti, I., Choo, L., S., & Karatepe, O. (2018). The effects of supervisor support and self-efficacy on call center employees’ work engagement and quitting intentions. International Journal of Manpower. 10.1108/IJM-12-2017-0320.

Vann, J., C. (2017). Relationships between job satisfaction, supervisor support, and profitability among quick service industry employeeshttps://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi

Wickramasinghe, V. (2012). Supervisor support as a moderator between work schedule flexibility and job stress: Some empirical evidence from Sri Lanka. International Journal of Workplace Health Management. 5. 10.1108/17538351211215384.

1

Chapter 6

Discussion

6.1 Introduction

This

chapter

discusses

the

findings

presented

in

the

three

preceding

chapters.

This chapter

proceeds as follows. An overview of the research questions, variables

and

hypotheses and a

summary of findings on hypotheses results in Section 6.2. Each Hypotheses results are

discussed in Section

6.3

.

6.2 Overview of Research Questions, vari

ables and hypothesis and results

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between job resources, work

engagement, emotional ill

health and turnover intentions (

Job Demands and Resources Model

JD

R Model

).

In this section, the overall su

mmary of the regression analysis results will be

provided. The findings on each research question is presented in table xx below and explained.

Table xx: Summary of hypotheses test results

Hypotheses supported?

Research Questions

Hypotheses

All

respondents

Asian

countries

Non

Asian

countries

RQ1

What is the impact of job

resources on vigour?

H1a: Autonomy has a positive relationship with

vigour

Yes

No

No

H1b: Supervisory support has a positive

relationship with vigour

Yes

Yes

No

H1c: Career development has a positive

relationship with vigour

No

Yes

Yes

RQ2

What is the impact of job

resources on dedication?

H2a: Autonomy has a positive relationship with

dedication

No

No

No

H2b: Supervisory support has a positive

relationship with dedication

Yes

Yes

Yes

H2c: Career development has a positive

relationship with dedication

Yes

Yes

Yes

1

Chapter 6 Discussion

6.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the findings presented in the three preceding chapters. This chapter

proceeds as follows. An overview of the research questions, variables and hypotheses and a

summary of findings on hypotheses results in Section 6.2. Each Hypotheses results are

discussed in Section 6.3.

6.2 Overview of Research Questions, variables and hypothesis and results

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between job resources, work

engagement, emotional ill-health and turnover intentions (Job Demands and Resources Model

JD-R Model). In this section, the overall summary of the regression analysis results will be

provided. The findings on each research question is presented in table xx below and explained.

Table xx: Summary of hypotheses test results

Hypotheses supported?

Research Questions Hypotheses All

respondents

Asian

countries

Non-Asian

countries

RQ1

What is the impact of job

resources on vigour?

H1a: Autonomy has a positive relationship with

vigour

Yes No No

H1b: Supervisory support has a positive

relationship with vigour

Yes Yes No

H1c: Career development has a positive

relationship with vigour

No Yes Yes

RQ2

What is the impact of job

resources on dedication?

H2a: Autonomy has a positive relationship with

dedication

No No No

H2b: Supervisory support has a positive

relationship with dedication

Yes Yes Yes

H2c: Career development has a positive

relationship with dedication

Yes Yes Yes