To help integrate what you are learning each week, as well as to help you illustrate your growing subject matter expertise, you’ll complete a weekly blog-style post that focuses in some way on one or more of the topics covered that week. Each post must be a minimum of 300 words in length (including the post title) with no maximum limitation. They should be tailored to fit the personal/professional brand or expertise that you’re trying to develop. Note that later this term (Term 1), you’ll begin to upload all of your posts (for this course and all other courses) to the WordPress website that you will be developing in this course.
Your weekly application posts should go beyond merely reiterating what was covered in the course materials. They should show your target audience(s) how to apply marketing concepts, techniques, or technologies to real-world problems or opportunities for which they have an interest. Your posts can be serious, light-hearted, tell stories or experiences, give advice, offer critiques of marketing practices you encounter, make comparisons across companies or techniques, describe innovative marketing practices, predict the future of marketing, etc. The key is that they must be (1) informative to your target audience and (2) pertain in some way to the week’s material for this course. Other than that, you have free reign. Remember that the tone, style, voice, and mood of your writing is up to you, but you should always consider what would work best for your target audiences. You may even decide to have a general theme to your posts, perhaps staying focused on a particular industry or region or marketplace.
To receive credit for each weekly application post, it must be completed as instructed and submitted on time: by 11:59:00pm on the due date. No late submissions will be accepted for credit. Submit the assignment using the appropriate link in the Assignments section of Canvas. (Note that the scores for the 8 assignments will be averaged for a collective maximum of 5 percentage points, making each individual post worth 0.625% of the final grade. Also, keep in mind the grading scale for this assignment as noted in the syllabus.)
You can write about one of the the main topics from one of this week’s modules or just a small mention of something that sparked your curiosity (or anything in between). Remember, your post must be (1) informative to your target audience and (2) pertain in some way to the week’s materials for this course. Posts must include an original title and have proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
Consider adding to your current title (perhaps with a title tagline) to make it clear to potential readers what they’ll find in the article (it will also help with SEO). Break up long paragraphs into multiple paragraphs to enhance perceived readability. Consider adding headings or subheadings to keep your readers engaged. Be sure to highlight a “quotable” moment or two that your readers might want to use to quote you when they share your post on social media. Strengthen your ending by writing an original (as in written by you) “quotable” closing sentence that is powerful and that your readers will want to quote when they share your post on social media. Other ways to improve your posts: – Include relevant images to help with search, SEO, reader experience, engagement, and context. – Link to external webpages as appropriate (but make sure each hyperlink opens in a new window when you post these on your website).
Please make sure to also read the attached documents
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Please also have some parts from the previous post which is attached.
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Use some material from this video as well
An Introduction to Deconstructing Marketing Communications:
Modes, Platforms, Formats, and Elements
Anthony Miyazaki (revised 2020)
There is some degree of irony in the fact that when discussing the topic of Marketing
Communications, there is sometimes confusion in how various components are referenced in the
field. Words such as Elements, Platforms, Modes, Formats, Approaches, Types, Methods,
Systems, etc. have all been used to delineate the various parts that make up the whole of
marketing communications, but they haven’t always been used in the same manner. Despite the
annoying lack of consistency and clarity, however, a deconstructed view of the various
components is essential in understanding how marketing communications work and how we can
In the following discussion, several identifiers are used to label particular sets of components or
tools, but be cautious by knowing that other professionals in our broad fields of marketing and
communications might use these terms in other ways. This could be contingent on not only the
industry in which they work, but even the organization or department that employs them.
Marketing Communication Modes
Basic discussion of marketing communications often references a set of methods, often called
“modes,” by which marketers share or exchange information with their various audiences.
Although the number and grouping of these modes varies across authors, they generally contain
the following ten components (note that some of these modes may overlap to some degree):
1. Advertising: In general, advertising is the most common form of marketing communication and consists of the paid delivery of a marketing message (the
presentation or promotion of goods, services, ideas, etc.) via a variety of media channels,
such as print (newspapers, magazines), broadcast (television, radio), physical display
(billboards, signs, posters), network/transmission media (landline telephone, wireless,
cable, satellite), general digital media (websites, email), and social media (Facebook,
YouTube, Twitter, etc.)
2. Personal Selling: Interpersonal (i.e., person-to-person) two-way interactions between individuals or small groups with the end purchase of facilitating an exchange (i.e.,
making a sale). Personal selling can include face-to-face (in-store or at the customer’s
work or home), phone calls, video conferencing, and/or online chats. Various aspects of
personal selling include acquisition of leads, development of prospects, solicitation of
commitment, signing of contracts, delivery of product, and collection of compensation.
3. Sales Promotion: Temporary (short-term) incentives to encourage trial (current customers trying new products or new customers trying a current product) or to boost
sales volume (and hopefully sales revenue). Sales promotions can be directed toward
end-users (using samples, discounts, deals, rebates, or coupons), distribution partners
(with co-op advertising or display allowances), and/or internal sales forces (using
contests or short-term incentives).
4. Direct Marketing: Communications that allow recipients to respond directly to the message sender in order to facilitate the exchange. These communications can be fairly
broad (such as a direct-response television or radio ad that solicits immediate responses)
or strongly targeted (such as mailed letters or catalogs, email, or automated phone
5. Interactive Marketing: Communication activities and programs that change based on specific audience member actions. Examples are website interactions, online games, or
6. Public Relations / Media Relations / Publicity: Public relations (PR) work is often thought of as being focused on getting others to discuss your product or brand without
paying them. PR activities may include broad activities such as community relations,
public affairs, and crisis management, as well as specific tasks involving press/news
releases, media/press kits, speaking engagements, charitable activities, and employee
interactions. These activities may be directed internally to organization employees, or
externally to individual buyers, groups, the government, and media organizations. Often,
the purpose is to promote, change, and protect the image of an organization, product, or
7. Corporate Philanthropy: The support of another (typically non-profit) organization’s activities is generally considered sponsorship. It can be done with in-kind (product)
donations, monetary support, or volunteer work from organizational employees.
Sponsoring organizations often attempt to choose a charity recipient that has similar
audiences, similar industry focus, geographic proximity, and/or shared ideals. Examples
include being the official product sponsor of an event, title sponsorship, or cause-related
marketing that may share a portion of proceeds with a sponsored organization.
8. Events/Experiences: Activities and programs designed to create ongoing or temporary immersive interactions for target audiences. These might include arts, entertainment,
sports, and festivals, or continuous displays, venues, or public occasions.
9. Word-of-Mouth: The encouragement or influence of buyers and/or the public to relay information about the product or brand from person to person via written, oral, or
electronic communication. This type of communication is particularly strong due to the
higher trust that people put into recommendations that come from friends or
acquaintances over the institutions that offer the products.
10. Research and Listening: As marketers have moved the consideration of marketing messaging from mere Promotion (a la McCarthy’s 4 P’s) to interactive Communication
(Kotler’s 4 C’s), it is prudent that marketers consider the other side of the communication
equation—that of receiving information from our audiences in addition to just providing
it. To do this, we need research, feedback, customer listening, response mechanisms, etc.
Some of these activities may precede the formulation and delivery of formal marketing
messages; some will be ongoing attempts to learn about the customer needs; and others
may be feedback mechanisms to ensure sufficient processes, product design, and delivery
Marketing Communication Platforms
A physical platform is by definition a raised floor or stage that is used to elevate the speaker or
performer for better viewing and listening. For marketing communications, a platform performs
a similar function in that it serves as a mechanism by which the communication message is
delivered. Platforms, or rather the communications that they carry, are commonly designated as
paid, owned, earned, and shared. Marketing authors Kotler and Keller have a table of
communication platforms that provides an excellent illustration of how various platforms may fit
within different marketing communication modes (a subset of those just discussed). A slightly
revised version of their table (2012 Table 17.1) appears below:
Reprints of ads
Fairs and trade
As you can see, each mode has various platforms that can be used to communicate information
from the message provider to the intended receiver. Spend a few moments to look through this
table to get an idea of how communication platforms fit within the structure of communication
Platforms are not merely the vehicles by which messages are delivered. They carry with them
the contextual baggage associated not only with their communication limitations, but also with
whatever other messages they are delivering at that time. As a result, a message delivered via
one particular platform will essentially be a different message than one delivered on another
platform because the accompanying messages have already primed the audience members to
view your message in a particular context, and perhaps in a context that you didn’t anticipate.
Marketing Communication Formats
In essence, regardless of the specific platform, all communication is delivered via the senses.
There are certain communication formats that constitute the majority of marketing
communications. Although they typically combine visual and auditory reception, there are some
that go beyond these two basic communication receptors. The formats used to communicate are
often combined to form complex messages of which even the marketers themselves are
potentially unaware. The choice of communication format(s) used may be dictated by the
platform of choice, or the platform may be chosen to deliver a particular format or set of formats.
Eight of these formats are:
1. Static Visual Imagery: Solitary pictures can range from abstract or unidentifiable shapes to photographic representations of reality. They can be simple or complex; bold
or subtle; informative or emotional. The maxim “a picture is worth a thousand words” is
not lost on marketers who find that imagery can communicate massive information in a
minimum of time and effort.
2. Dynamic Visual Imagery (of Moving Imagery): Dynamic visual imagery refers to images with a motion element, typically created and seen these days via electronic video
technology. Whether animated or “real,” video provides superior storytelling
capabilities. At the same time, there are challenges due to the complexity of the various
design elements that are present in the construction of video imagery. Because of this
complexity, particular meanings, concepts, and ideas oftentimes are delivered that were
not intended, and those meanings, concepts, and ideas may be counter to the intention of
the primary messaging.
3. Music: Music has been described as “organized sound” or “the ordering of sound in time.” The power of music is well known to marketers, who use it at times as an
undercurrent to fill empty space and at other times as the main auditory communication
that directs the audience into a particular emotional state. Music typically is not used by
marketers without any other communication format due to its inability to convey specific
brand identification or product information. Its use in advertising, however, is extensive,
from mood-setting and attention-grabbing to corporate jingles and logo sound branding.
4. Static Text: Edward Bulwer-Lytton’s 1839 phrase “the pen is mightier than the sword” suggests the immense power of the written word (although he may have been referring to
communication in general). Indeed, whether marketing words are spoken, sung, or
strewn across a television or computer screen, they likely were written initially as static
text. Static text merely means that the words are still—not moving. The text can be an
extensive description of a product, or merely a word or two that provides insights into
why a brand is desirable. The words can inform, attract attention, and/or invoke emotion.
From the perspective of digital marketing, static text is the most searchable and thus has
considerable influence on search engine optimization and inbound marketing. Finally,
the presentation of text—with respect to font, size, boldness, style, positioning, etc.—can
affect its impact and meaning.
5. Moving Text: Text by itself is powerful, but it can be manipulated and have an even more dynamic life by treating it as moving imagery. It can assist the spoken word,
contradict spoken word, or serve as the only language communication in the messaging.
From scrolling to dropping to fading in and out, there are numerous ways to present text
in video formats.
6. Speaking: The spoken word has its own flavor and impact. As with music, the concepts of tonality, pitch, speed, and delivery can be applied to speaking to discover differing
experiences that can drastically change a spoken marketing message. Speaking patterns,
breaths, pauses, speed, and intensity all combine to form unique messaging whether
spoken by one individual or as dialogue between multiple people.
7. Other (Touch, Smell, Taste, Proximity, etc.): Marketing communication is not limited to vision and hearing. There are many examples of touch, smell, and taste that marketers
use to communicate to potential and current customers. These communications are
meant to inform, remind, persuade, and connect just as visual and auditory messaging
does. There are additional communication formats that are potentially more abstract, and
might be considered variations of the basic formats or perhaps not fit within any
particular format. For example, proximity—which may be construed to be of a physical,
emotional, intellectual, or psychological nature—can influence the intimacy or intensity
of message delivery.
8. Nothing/Absence/Silence: Finally, there is communication and messaging that can take place in the absence of overt messaging. This silence or emptiness conveys meaning
perhaps without being explicit. The use of this format is in actuality the lack of use of
one of the other formats to some degree, but its influence on messaging can be profound.
Marketing Communication Elements
Beyond modes, platforms, and formats, we can deconstruct communication to the point of the
various elements that make up the formats. There are a vast number of elements that can be
considered, and many marketers, critics, and students of communication tend to focus in on
particular sets of elements depending on the particular format that they’re critiquing. For
example, someone critiquing visual imagery (whether static or dynamic), might tend to focus on
elements such as containment, hue, saturation, perspective, proportion, consistency, line,
direction, framing, spacing, symmetry and asymmetry, alignment, texture, repetition, etc. For
dynamic imagery in particular (such as video or other moving visuals), they might focus on
movement, speed, order, timing, flow, activity, direction, or others elements.
Although each format may have its own set of unique elements, it often is useful to consider how
a particular element can have meaning (or serve as a muse to creativity) in the realm of a
different format. For example, conceptual elements of visual imagery—such as framing, texture,
background, and symmetry—can be applied to the formats of music, static text, moving text,
speaking, and even to some degree to smell and taste. Thus, a study of the elements of imagery
is fundamental to comprehending, evaluating, influencing, and creating marketing
The same could be said for music, with its references to tonality, flow, rhythm, melody,
dynamics, timbre, and tempo. Application of these elements to static imagery, moving imagery,
text, and speaking can help us to better understand how these formats can be used to formulate
messages that appeal to particular aspects of our target audiences.
Non-visual and non-auditory senses also provide us with elements that we can use to describe
marketing communication. Pressure, softness, sweet, bitter, pungent, aromatic, etc. can be used
for a variety of communication formats to broaden how we perceive our messaging and how we
might sense that our audiences will perceive it.
Finally, serious marketers also should be students of rhetoric, the study of effective speaking and
writing with an underlying purpose of persuasion. Many of the elements of rhetoric can be
applied to the imagery and auditory formats that marketers use now more than ever with the
popularity of social media. For example, the three rhetorical appeals of ethos (credibility or
authority), pathos (identity, self-interest, emotion), and logos (reason and logic) can be applied to
imagery and even music as we attempt to build marketing messages that achieve our overall
All of this means that a study of all communication elements—regardless of whether they
typically are used to describe the formats of imagery, sound, writing, speech, or touch, smell,
etc.—is fundamental to comprehending, evaluating, influencing, and creating marketing
The deconstruction of marketing communication is a necessary precursor to building integrated
marketing communications processes, systems, and goals. Without knowledge of the elemental
building blocks, we are left viewing only the outer shell of communication, and are prone to fail
in our efforts to connect with our audiences in terms of meaning and interpretation.
In the end, the tasks involved in marketing communications can be said to have three basic roles:
production, delivery, and interpretation. We produce messages not by creating meaning, but by
transforming meaning into viable vessels in the form of writing, speaking, imagery, sound,
touch, etc. We then use delivery platforms and modes that often are devoid of consideration for
either our initial production or the ultimate interpretation, even though those platforms and
modes carry with them information, noise, and environments that can influence how the message
is ultimately perceived. Finally, our audiences (and we ourselves upon receipt of feedback) are
tasked with interpretation—finding meaning in the message and in the context in which it is
delivered. This occurs via reading, listening, viewing, and feeling. The desired end result is a
mutual understanding of the intentions of each of the parties involved in the communication
Among all this is our hope that we will ultimately connect with our various audiences, and that
somehow those connections will transcend the limitations of message production, delivery, and
interpretation so that future messaging is more easily understood due to a commonality of
perspective and a shared sense of purpose.
• • •
CMO NETWORK 7/31/2017 @ 6:40AM 5,796 views
From Storytelling To VR ‘Storyliving’: Future Marketing Communications
Google headquarters in Mountain View, Calif. (AP Photo/Marcio Jose Sanchez, File)
Google Zoo, Alphabet’s in-house creative think tank that provides value ad for brands and agencies by helping them devise creative ways to use Google products and new tech platforms, recently released a study with Google News Lab about how audiences experience VR. The study includes implications for how journalists and marketing creatives will relay messages to consumers through VR going forward, and how consumers will react to and process this new form of communication.
The Google study coins the concept “storyliving”: EXPERIENCING stories and brand messages through VR. Their ethnographic study found that consumer perceptions of what VR was ranged from a 360-degree video (where users can turn and see around them or move smartphone and computer screens around, like Google Maps Satellite View), to fully immersive virtual reality with state-of-the-art headsets like Google Daydream, HTC Vive, or Oculus.
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Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.https://www.forbes.com/https://www.forbes.com/cmo-networkhttps://newslab.withgoogle.com/assets/docs/storyliving-a-study-of-vr-in-journalism.pdfhttps://vr.google.com/daydream/https://www.vive.com/us/https://www.oculus.com/https://www.forbes.com/sites/michellegreenwald/https://www.forbes.com/sites/michellegreenwald/
The overall takeaway from the Google Zoo study is that Virtual Reality has the potential to relay much more powerful advertising and journalistic messages than traditional storytelling’s text, still images, and traditional video. Consumers take VR messages and stories to heart in deeper and potentially longer lasting ways. The more multi-sensory communication enables viewers to better see, hear, feel and identify with what others are experiencing.
Storytelling in traditional print and TV ads tends to be linear. With virtual reality, consumers have more choice in the order they experience message elements and they’re freer to follow their own paths of exploration within stories. As a result, advertisers will be less in control of how viewers will process their messages. VR ads that provide different directions viewers can take means marketing stories have to be more nuanced and detailed, and brands need to anticipate more varied reactions: Humanizing VR and quick takeaways for marketers might help to do so.
6 recent examples convey the power of Virtual Reality to touch people in profound, memorable ways.
On July 10 , Warner Brothers in collaboration with Google and Jam3 released a new Dunkirk WebVR game for Chrome in support of Christopher Nolan’s latest movie launch. The 360° mutliplayer game, enables viewers to more closely experience the battle of Dunkirk in June 1940. Though done in CGI animation, scenes were created with real sounds of planes overhead, recorded to sync with the video. Through eye tracking, when consumers turn to see the beaches of Dunkirk being bombed all around them, the sound of enemy planes above follow players’ head movements, as it would in real life.
“ According to Abigail Posner, Head of Strategy for The Zoo at Google“Access to VR experiences is surging. It’s getting easier to try it out, driven in large part by both VR180 and 360 formats. It’s a gateway to larger experiences. People try this flavor, dive into new worlds, pique their senses, and then want to try more and more complex kinds of immersive experiences. So brands need to start playing around with the unique VR story framework, blaze new trails and truly show what they’re about to their users. It’s a new way to make a deep impression about what the brand stand for.“
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is the highway safety agency that launches semi annual campaigns to discourage drunk driving. Their latest effort, created in collaboration with Google ZOO’s team and Tombras Group, deployed 360° videos with interactive overlays to enable app users to experience different levels of drinking at several different virtual bars they could choose from. In Last Call 360° viewers select the number of drinks they want. As the number increases, their virtual view of the world becomes more distorted. The experience speaks louder than words to hit home the effects of alcohol.
The November 3, 2016, New York Times Daily 360° web VR post enabled Chicago Cub fans to remotely experience the euphoria of waiting 108 years to win a World Series, with other fans outside the stadium. The Winning View from Chicago VR enabled viewers to be part of the rejoicing crowd that circled the stadium after the game was won. Viewers virtually stood with thousands of others and could turn to witness the joy, everywhere they looked. It was a far more emotional way to experience the excitement than just reading about it in the newspaper, or hearing about it on TV.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ot8TXLuTaPEhttps://www.nytimes.com/video/sports/baseball/100000004741874/the-winning-view-from-chicago.htmlhttps://www.nytimes.com/video/sports/baseball/100000004741874/the-winning-view-from-chicago.html
Recently, in Martorell, Spain, just outside Barcelona, I experienced a virtual reality 360° video using Oculus Rift headsets at the SEAT car company corporate headquarters. The experience took viewers on a life-like ride through the streets of Barcelona from the vantage point of driving the new SEAT Ateca, followed by virtual walks through one of the hottest restaurants in the city and around the roof of one of Gaudi’s most famous buildings. The experience of virtually driving the Ateca was far more exciting than watching someone else drive it in a TV spot.
Javier Molina, a professor of Integrated Digital Media at NYU’s Tandon School of Engineering debuted his awesome virtual reality theater play To Be With Hamlet, at this past Spring’s Tribeca Film Festival. Live actors, playing the Shakespearean roles were filmed in motion capture body suits and transformed into animated characters. The audience could attend in real- time from anywhere in the world. Wearers of VR headsets felt right in the middle of the play’s action, despite watching from different locations around the world. The audience could explore the ramparts of Elsinore Castle as Hamlet is confronted by the 15ft tall Ghost of his murdered father. The full production of To Be With Hamlet premieres off-broadway in September 2017.
At the unusual, multi-media restaurant, Opera Samfaina’s in Barcelona, a newly installed small ship that guests can sit in, transports them (via VR headsets), through the city’s history. It starts with a journey through tunnels below Barcelona. Viewers emerge into the sunlight of 450 AD, where knights are jousting. Progressing through time, viewers soar above and aroundhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lltJ1W2hsOwhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lltJ1W2hsOwhttp://hamletvr.org/
Gaudi’s iconic church spires, ending in today’s Barcelona. It was a quick, engaging and exciting way to experience a glimpse of the city’s history.
How Marketers Can Best Integrate VR into Overall Plans Like all new tech platforms, VR should be part of the overall marketing mix, utilized strategically, and not as a gimmick where the technology is the hero. VR messages can change attitudes by more literally placing someone in another’s shoes (experiencing the battle of Dunkirk), or virtually experiencing physical sensations (like being drunk). Brands can extend “the conversation” with integrated campaigns across social media, creating like-minded communities, relevant website content, branded content, in-store activations, etc.
How VR “Storyliving” Marketing Will Play Out Over Time While the potential to deliver potentially more effective, memorable and emotionally resonant stories and brand messages via VR is exciting, a number of issues remain to be seen:
• Will viewers become emotionally exhausted from so many VR, intense, quasi-real world experiences?
• If VR becomes “the” new journalism or advertising form, will people be able or willing to process as many VR “articles” or stories as the old school print and non-immersive videos they’ve historically consumed?
• Will VR become tiresome?
• How will individuals select which to watch and engage with?
• Will VR intensity have to keep escalating to vie for attention and engagement?
• Will it be even harder to break through the clutter?
• What will happen to old school journalists? Can they adapt/be retrained? If not, will VR immersive storytelling be told only by the young and hip?
• Will brands with rational, brand attribute communication needs suffer by comparison, or will necessity propel them to find more creative and immersive ways to communicate their features and benefits?
Michelle Greenwald is CEO of Inventours; a top business school marketing professor; marketing executive at Disney, Pepsi, Nestle & JWT; author of Catalyzing Innovation; consultant
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