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Which leadership style or combination of styles do you believe to be most effective in today’s successful healthcare culture? Please explain why. 

Chapter 4

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

“One’s feelings waste themselves in use of words, they ought all to be distilled into actions and into actions which bring results.”

Florence Nightingale

Learning Objectives

Describe the progression of leadership thought as portrayed in theories and models from the Great Man and Trait phase to the Behavioral phase to the Situational or Contingency phase.

Distinguish constructs of a Trait theory or model, a behavioral theory or model and a situational or contingency theory or model of leadership and interpret those construct’s value in the present day.

Apply a Behavioral theory or model and a Situational or Contingency theory or model of leadership and demonstrate the application in an example based on a definition of leadership you produce.

Learning Objectives

Compare and contrast, with illustrating diagrams, two or more Behavioral and/or Situational/Contingency theories or models of leadership.

From the progression of leadership thought, design, create, and explain a personal leadership model applicable to leading health organizations today.

Appraise and relate constructs and variables from the progression of leadership thought to your personal leadership model applicable to leading health organizations today.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Leadership thought is a constructivist approach over time; early theories and models form the foundation or stepping stone for the next theory or model.

List the constructs and variables associated with each theory or model under the various phases of leadership thought and begin to identify what constructs and approaches are salient to health leadership in today’s environment.

Think about what theories and models are descriptive, prescriptive, and even both.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Leadership thought is a constructivist approach over time; early theories and models form the foundation or stepping stone for the next theory or model.

Identify leadership constructs and approaches that resonate with you to build a preliminary personal leadership model that you can utilize in your career.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

There are three distinct phases of leadership thought:

Great Man and Trait Theories and Models

Behavioral Theories and Models

Situational or Contingency Theories and Models

A fourth phase may be in an early stage; this potential phase incorporates organizational culture into situational leadership practice.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Great Man and Trait Leadership Phase

These theories and models concentrated on individual leaders who were considered ‘great’ and those characteristics or traits of those leaders were identified as reasons for their success .

Other models focused simply on traits without identifying a ‘Great Man.’

Leaders are ‘born’ was the mantra for this phase.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Xenophon (400 BC): An Early Leader Theory

Xenophon wrote Anabasis which served as a guide to Alexander the Great during his conquests.

In modern terms provided here, Xenophon wrote that leaders guide their people, their army, to success by courage and modeling ‘leadership.’

A key characteristic of a leader, from Xenophon’s perspective, was horsemanship; being a great horseman was critical to role modeling leadership.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Machiavelli (1530): Narcissist Theory

Machiavelli’s (1527) The Prince.

Machiavelli suggested that the qualities of a good leader was to be malevolent and feared. The major theme of Machiavelli’s work was the ‘ends justifies the means.’

Lack of consideration of consequences and the inherent immorality of his strategies should be apparent.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Machiavelli (1530): Narcissist Theory

Machiavelli’s (1527) The Prince.

Machiavelli suggested that the qualities of a good leader was to be malevolent and feared. The major theme of Machiavelli’s work was the ‘ends justifies the means.’

Lack of consideration of consequences and the inherent immorality of his strategies should be apparent.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Carlyle, Galton, and James’ Great Man (1840-1880)

Great-Man theorists Carlyle, Galton, and James studied great men from history who exhibited certain behaviors and possessed certain characteristics.

They documented successful outcomes of these ‘Great’ leaders, such as prosperity, political standing or affluence.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Carlyle, Galton, and James’ Great Man (1840-1880)

Based on the study of these characteristics the theorists suggested that in order to be a good leader, one would have to emulate the characteristics of these men.

Such characteristics often centered on an individual’s race and gender.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Lewin, Lippitt, and White’s Trait Theory (1938-1939).

These scholars studied the leadership styles of two groups of ten and eleven year-olds in mask-making clubs.

During the experiment, they noted that the two groups demonstrated two distinct behavior types – authoritarian or democratic.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Lewin, Lippitt, and White’s Trait Theory (1938-1939).

The study led to the subsequent examination of the impacts on production, group tension, cooperation, and feelings of “we’ness” versus “I’ness.”

This work aided in the migration to Behavioral Phase.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Behavioral Leadership Phase

Particularly, what actions and behaviors that facilitated leadership success was at the heart of leadership research of this period. Important to this Behavioral Phase, leadership could be learned or nurtured.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

McGregor Theory X and Theory Y (1950)

Theory X: people are lazy, extrinsically motivated, not capable of self-discipline, and want security and no responsibility in their jobs.

A Theory X leader has one leadership style, autocratic, and has a limited view of the world and does not consider internal and external modifiers.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

McGregor Theory X and Theory Y (1950)

Theory Y: people do not inherently dislike work, are intrinsically motivated, exert self-control, and seek responsibility.

Theory Y leaders assess themselves (internal modifiers) in areas such as preferred leadership style, motives and limitations, past experiences, and external modifiers such as characteristics of the task, time constraints, organizational norms, structure and climate, past history with group, economic and legal limits, and degree of stability of the organization.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

McGregor Theory X and Theory Y (1950)

Theory Y

The Theory Y leader chooses a leadership style (does not mean they will not select an autocratic style depending on the situation).

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

University of Michigan Leadership Studies (1950)

Michigan studies suggested that leaders could be grouped into one of two classifications; employee oriented or production oriented.

The research suggested that highly productive supervisors spent more time planning departmental work and in supervising their employees.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

University of Michigan Leadership Studies (1950)

The same supervisors spent less time working alongside and performing the same tasks as subordinates.

They, the successful supervisors, accorded their subordinates more freedom in specific task performance and tended to be employee-oriented.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Katz’s Skills Theory (1955)

Technical Skills: knowledge about approaches, methods, processes, procedures, and techniques for conducting specialized work and the ability to use those tools and equipment relevant to the activity;

Interpersonal Skills: knowledge about human behavior and interpersonal relationships, the ability to understand the feelings, attitudes, and motivations of others, the ability to communicate and deal with conflict effectively, and the ability to build effective relationships;

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Katz’s Skills Theory (1955)

Conceptual Skills: analytical ability, logical thinking, proficiency in concept development and the capability to make sense of complex and ambiguous relationships, creativity in idea generation and problem-solving, the ability to analyze events and perceive trends, anticipate changes, and recognize opportunities and problems (inductive and deductive reasoning);

Later, some researchers added Administrative Skills as a category: the ability to perform a particular types of managerial functions or behaviors (for example, hiring, planning, organizing, budgeting, delegating, negotiating, coaching, mentoring and conducting meetings).

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Argyris’ (1957): Personality and Organization

Related organizational learning and success with a leader’s ability to achieve synchronization between his or her vision and goals with the subordinate’s or employee’s perception or tolerance of the vision and goals.

To demonstrate this theory, Argyris posited two sets of organizational values he called Theories in Use and Theories in Action.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Argyris’ (1957): Personality and Organization

Training and culture shifts can increase the effectiveness of a leader’s ability to ensure actions and thoughts are executed from one agenda.

Argyris, C. (1993) Knowledge for Action. A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change, San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

The Managerial Grid by Blake and Mouton (1964) is a behavioral leadership model based on four constructs: Concern for Production, Concern for People, Motivation, and Leadership Style.

Motivation can be negative (motivate by fear) or positive (motivate through desire & encouragement);

However, the third axis, motivation, is rarely shown (perhaps due to difficulty in determining motivation type and amount).

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Managerial Grid (Con’t)

Least effective style is the Impoverished style because this person does not really care about product or people.

The most effective is Team Leader because this individual places a high priority both on the product and the people.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Situational or Contingency Leadership Phase

Assert that no one way of leading works well in all situations.

Leaders must have the ability to change styles and use skills that best deal with the organizational situation at hand.

Effective leaders diagnose the situation, identify an appropriate leadership style, and then determine if implementation is possible.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Situational or Contingency Leadership Phase

At least four dimensions must be evaluated when assessing situational or contingent leadership research:

Subordinate (expertise, experience, resources, motivation, task load &knowledge of job);

Supervisor/leader/manager (values, attitudes, level of influence, and level of authority);

Task characteristics (complexity, time, risk, autonomy, ambiguity, uncertainty, and workload); and (con’t)

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Situational or Contingency Leadership Phase

At least four dimensions must be evaluated (con’t):

Organizational culture (coupling, communication environment, ambiguity and uncertainty tolerance, balance of work, social and personal life, planning emphasis, decision-making alignment, employee enhancement and level of knowledge management and learning orientation).

Emergence of organizational culture within the situational context.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Exchange Theory

The leader exchanges resources, such as increased rewards, increased job latitude, influence on decision-making, and open communication, for members’ commitment to higher involvement in organizational functioning.

This research embraces the Social Exchange Theory that suggests that leaders must offer an exchange (bonus, increased status, etc…) for improved or additional performance by subordinates.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Exchange Theory

It is the precursor of modern transactional leadership theory.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Fiedler’s (1964): Contingency Model

Fiedler proposed that the performance of any group depends on the leader’s style in terms of motivation and relationship to the subordinates and the favorability of the situation.

Fiedler identified three variables related to the context: “group atmosphere, task structure, and leader’s power position.”

de Jonge, Jaap (ed). (2009). Contingency Theory. Retrieved June 10, 2009, from http://www.12manage.com/methods_contingency_theory.html.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Fiedler’s (1964): Contingency Model

Performance of any group depended on the other two factors, which became known as “leadership style and situational favorableness.” It is these two factors that determine how effective the leader will be.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Erikson’s (1964): Psychoanalytic Theory

Erikson’s initial theory posited that there are unconscious factors at work that stimulate and motivate behavior.

For some, followership may be stimulated by a need of a subordinate to replace a father figure with a person of authority in the workplace.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Erikson’s (1964): Psychoanalytic Theory

Consequently, a father’s mentoring and emotional attachment for children within the family dynamic may extend to a need to display those tendencies by subordinates in the workplace.

Occurs through unconscious need to follow or lead others.

Kernberg, O.F. (2004). Contemporary controversies in psychoanalytic theory, technique, and their applications. Yale University Press

Path-Goal Theory by Robert House in 1971 suggests that a leader can impact subordinate(s) performance, satisfaction, and motivation by: 1) offering rewards for achieving performance goals; 2) clarifying paths toward these goals; and 3) removing obstacles to performance.

Initial set of constructs of this model are similar to Expectancy Theory by Vroom with the addition of clarity (step-by-step instructions for example) and explicit effort by leader to remove barriers to goal achievement by the subordinate. Construct of leadership styles have some similarity to Situational Leadership by Hersey and Blanchard.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

The ability and impact of the leader’s efforts are influenced and moderated by the subordinate’s personality (Locus of Control by Rotter, internalizer or externilizer; and self perceived ability and self efficacy) and characteristics of the environment (amount of task structure, organizational coupling, and team orientation).

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Vroom, Yetton, and Jago’s (1973): Normative Decision-Making Model

These theorists suggested four major categories with subcategories for decision-making:

Autocratic Type 1: leader uses information that is easily available –makes decision alone.

Autocratic Type 2: leader collects information from followers, makes the decision alone and informs others.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Vroom, Yetton, and Jago’s (1973): Normative Decision-Making Model

These theorists suggested four major categories with subcategories for decision-making:

Consultative Type 1: leaders shares the problem individually to those he considers to be relevant, asks for ideas and suggestions and then, makes the decision.

Consultative Type 2: leader shares problems with relevant others as a group, asks for ideas and suggestions and makes the decision alone.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Vroom, Yetton, and Jago’s (1973): Normative Decision-Making Model

These theorists suggested four major categories with subcategories for decision-making:

Group-based Type 1: leader brings one other person into the decision making process of sharing information and making the decision.

Group-based Type 2: The group makes the decision with the leader with consensus being the priority.

Delegative: the leader gives the responsibility and authority to make the decision to someone else.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Graen’s (1975): Leader-Member Exchange and Vertical Dyad Linkage Theories

This model suggests that leaders accomplish work through various personal relationships with different members of the subordinate group.

Leaders give tasks that are more positive to members who they feel support them.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Graen’s (1975): Leader-Member Exchange and Vertical Dyad Linkage Theories

LMX suggests behavior is not consistent across subordinates.

As a result, leaders classify subordinates into two groups; an in-group and an out-group similar to Fiedler’s Contingency Theory.

Situational Leadership Model by Hersey and Blanchard (1977) posits that leaders must utilize different styles depending on the situation.

The styles are:

S1 – Telling & Directing,

S2 – Selling & Coaching,

S3 – Participating & Supporting, and

S4 – Delegating.

Subordinate development is critical to this model; levels correspond to the Style of leadership such as D1 goes to S1

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Hersey & Blanchard’s (1977): Situational Leadership Theory

There is no one best style of leadership.

Leadership more effective when a leadership style that is appropriate to the development level of the individual or group they want to influence is used.

Maturity is assessed in relation to a specific task and the psychological maturity and job experience of the follower.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Hersey & Blanchard’s (1977): Situational Leadership Theory

The leader may then exercise various levels of delegating, participating, selling and telling in completing assigned tasks and goals.

Application of the correct leadership style based on the developmental level of the follower or group is the key ingredient in this model; however, sometimes there are situational variables that may affect the leadership style.

Some situational variables: time constraints, supervisory demands, and job demands.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

House’s (1977): Charismatic Leadership

Charismatic leaders inspire trust, faith and confidence in non-mechanical ways.

Charismatic leaders have a natural predisposition to be self-assured and comfortable ‘in their own skin.’ They rarely second guess themselves and are generally extroverts.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Burns’ (1978): Transformational Leadership (Refined by Bass)

Transformational leadership focuses on four constructs. Bass’s original theory included three behaviors of transformational leaders while the fourth was added later to transformational behaviors:

Charisma: leader influences followers by arousing strong emotions and identification with the leader

Intellectual Stimulation: leaders increase follower awareness of problems and influence followers view as problems from a new perspective

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Burns’ (1978): Transformational Leadership (Refined by Bass)

Transformational leadership focuses on four constructs.

Individualized Consideration: providing support, encouragement, and developmental experiences for followers

Inspirational Motivation: extent that the leader communicates an appealing vision using symbols to focus subordinate effort and model (role modeling; Bandera’s Social Learning Theory) appropriate behavior.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Burns’ (1978): Transformational Leadership (Refined by Bass)

As a situational or contingency theory, transformational leadership and transactional leadership are encompassed as viable styles a leader can select from depending on the situation.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Transactional versus Transformational Leadership

Bass considers transactional leadership as an exchange of rewards for compliance; transactional behaviors are:

Contingent Reward: clarification of work required to obtain rewards;

Active Management by Exception: monitoring subordinates and corrective action to ensure that the work is effectively accomplished;

Passive Management by Exception: use of contingent punishments and other corrective action in response to obvious deviations from acceptable performance standards.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Bass regards theories such as Leader-Member Exchange and Path-Goal as descriptions of transactional leadership.

Transformational and transactional leadership are distinct but not mutually exclusive; the same leader may use both types of leadership at different times in different situations.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Successful Transformational – like Actions and Behaviors

Ability to meet external expectations to develop an effective vision that is right for the times, right for the organization, and right for the people who are in the organization;

Ability to develop a clear and appealing vision to focus collective organizational energy toward a consistent set of strategies, goals and objectives;

Ability to inspire others by leveraging the basic human need to feel and be important and valuable;

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Successful Transformational – like Actions and Behaviors

Ability to facilitate decision making, take initiative, and delegate decision making authority and discretion to all levels appropriately (empowerment)

Ability to develop commitment and trust across all stakeholders by communicating vision and embedding it in the culture of the organization;

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Successful Transformational – like Actions and Behaviors

Ability to develop systems of internal and external environmental scanning, monitoring, analysis and forecasting;

Ability to be great facilitators of organizational learning and developers of knowledge management systems using experimentation to encourage innovation and to test new products, services and procedures.

Bennis, W. G. and Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge, New York, New York: Harper and Row Publishers.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Bennis’ (1985-1993): Competency Based Leadership

Identified four areas of competency; they are:

Creating attention through vision;

Create meaning through communication;

Becoming a person of trust; and

Self-development.

The Competency Based Model suggests strongly that leaders are made and not simply borne (antithesis of the Great Man & Trait Leadership Phase).

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Kouzes and Posner’s (1995): Leadership Framework

Leadership is only successful if a shared vision can be communicated to followers that changes their values resulting in goal directed behavior and positive work related outcomes.

To achieve this vision, the leader must be aware of the intangibles that exist in the ideals that motivate those employees around them.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Buckingham & Clifton’s (2001): Managerial and Strategic Leadership

Leadership is a process of focusing on follower strengths rather than trying to eliminate weakness.

It is imperative for leaders to conduct a self assessment and really understand themselves, their organizational direction and strengths and weaknesses of subordinates prior to trying to change the behavior of others.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Buckingham & Clifton’s (2001): Managerial and Strategic Leadership

A leader can’t develop the strengths of anyone in the workplace if they don’t know how to find, name and develop their own talents. As a result, in this philosophy, the strategy is to learn what your total strengths are and from there capitalize on existing strengths.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Ulrich, Zenger & Smallwood’s (1999); Nohria, Joyce & Robertson’s (2003): Results-Based Leadership

Results Based Leadership may have its roots in the Path-Goal Theory.

In this modern twist, results are tied to desired outcomes that may be tied back to competencies.

Competencies act as goals for leaders to achieve in strategy and training, and employees are wedded to those competencies through achieved attributes such as education, training and certifications.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Leadership as Managing Organizational Culture

There is a growing trend to incorporate organizational culture in leadership theories and models.

This is a rather new emphasis but a critically important one.

Leaders build culture in everything they do from role modeling, assigning responsibilities, how they communicate and by what they do not do or do not say.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Leadership as Managing Organizational Culture

Models with an organizational culture emphasis require leaders to determine, develop and maintain an organizational culture that can best meet the expectations, if not thrive, in the external environment.

More important and dramatic role for organizational culture as a proactive construct. Leaders must now create culture!

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

The next leadership phase may very well be the Culture Creation Contingency Leadership Phase (CCCL) that combines situational or contingency leadership with organizational culture creation, refinement and enhancement.

Proactive leader action in Culture Creation rather than reactive leader style selection and adaptation found in Situational Phase.

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

Chronology of Leadership Study and Practice

In essence, leadership success could be formulized across all leadership thought phases:

Personal +

Leader Individual Situational Organization Subordinate

Success = (Nature + Nurture) x Adaptation x Culture Creation x Accountability

Leadership is the dynamic and active creation and maintenance of an organizational culture and strategic systems that focus the collective energy of both leading people and managing resources toward meeting the needs of the external environment utilizing the most efficient, effective and most importantly, efficacious methods possible by moral means.

Discussion Questions

Describe the progression of leadership thought as portrayed in theories and models from the Great Man and Trait phase to the Behavioral phase to the Situational or Contingency phase.

Distinguish constructs of a Trait theory or model, a behavioral theory or model and a situational or contingency theory or model of leadership and interpret those constructs’ value in the present day. Does the Culture Creation Contingency Leadership phase emerge as a new phase? Why or Why not?

Discussion Questions

Apply a Behavioral theory or model and a Situational or Contingency theory of model of leadership and demonstrate the application in an example based on a definition of leadership you produce. Were you drawn more to descriptive or prescriptive theories and models?

Compare and contrast, with illustrating diagrams, two or more Behavioral and/or Situational/Contingency theories or models of leadership.

Discussion Questions

From the progression of leadership thought, design, create and explain a personal leadership model applicable to leading health organizations today.

Appraise and relate constructs and variables from the progression of leadership thought to your personal leadership model applicable to leading health organizations today.

Exercises

Describe a Trait, Behavioral and Situational/Contingency theory or model of leadership in one paragraph each.

Distinguish Situational Leadership Theory from Transactional Leadership and from Transformational Leadership, what is similar and what is different?

Exercises

Prepare a personal definition of leadership and construct a personal application-based model of leadership to lead health organizations today from the theories and models of the Situational or Contingency Phase of Leadership, categorizing descriptive and prescriptive elements, in two to three (2-3) pages.

Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of your personal application-based leadership model from item 3 above and modify your personal application-based leadership model to overcome the weaknesses you identify in one to two (1-2) pages.

Exercises

Compile, relate and summarize at least four (4) of the following articles from the literature on transformational and transactional leadership models in a three to four (3-4) page paper. The articles are (note that three articles are in the same edition of the same journal):

Avolio, Bruce, Bass, Bernard, Jung, Dong (1999). “Re-examining the Components of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, pages 441 – 462.

Exercises

The articles are (con’t)

Bass, Bernard (1999). “Ethics, Character, and Authentic Transformational Leadership Behavior,” Leadership Quarterly, 10 (2), pgs 181 – 217.

Conger, Jay A. (1999). “Charismatic and Transformational Leadership in Organizations: An Insider’s Perspective on these Developing Streams of Research,” Leadership Quarterly, 10 (2), pages 145– 179.

Exercises

The articles are (con’t)

Yukl, Gary (1999). “An Evaluation of Conceptual Weaknesses in Transformational and Charismatic Leadership Theories,” Leadership Quarterly, 10 (2), pgs. 285 – 305.

Barling, Julian; Weber, Tom; & Kelloway, E. Kevin (1996). “Effects of Transformational Leadership Training on Attitudinal and Financial Outcomes: A Field Experiment,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 81 (6), pgs. 827 – 832.

Exercises

Interpret, critique, defend a position and support that position of your appraisal of the Situational Leadership Theory by reading the following scholarly debate literature:

Additional Source for the Situational Leadership Theory (use if needed):

Hersey, P. & Blanchard H. (1993). Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources, 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Chapters 8-17.

Exercises

Scholarly Debate Regarding the SLT in the Literature:

Vecchio, R.P. (1987). “Situational Leadership Theory: An Examination of a Prescriptive Theory,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 72: pgs. 444-451.

Graeff, C. L. (1983). “The Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical View,” Academy of Management Review, 8. pgs. 285-291.

Lueder, D. C. (1985). “Don’t be Mislead by LEAD,” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 21. pgs. 143-151.

Lueder, D.C. (1985). “A Rejoiner to Dr. Hersey,” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 21. pg. 154.

Hersey, P. (1985). “A Letter to the Author of “Don’t be Mislead by LEAD,” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 21. pgs. 152-153.